I wonder what were the main experiments that led people to develop the concept of wave function collapse? (I think I am correct in including the Born Rule within the general umbrella of the collapse paradigm.) Are there any instances where cases once thought to be examples of collapse have since been explained as the normal time-evolution of the wave function?
EDIT: I'm going to have to make an objection to Ron Maimon's very excellent answer about particle tracks as evidence of collapse. I've been waiting for someone to suggest what I personally have always considered the prototype of the wave function collapse, namely the appearance of flecks of silver on a photographic plate when exposed to the light of a distant star. This has the essential elements of collapse in a way that ordinary photographic exposures do not. The mere appearance of dots on a photographic plate does not signal the collapse of anything: it is readily explainable as a consequence of the rate of silver-bromide reduction being proportional to light intensity. It is only when the intensity becomes so very low that the time taken to accumulate enough energy for a single conversion becomes unreasonable that we must consider the explanation of wave function collapse.
The tracks in the cloud chamber do not demonstrate this phenomenon since the energy needed for the creation of the tracks is already available in the supersaturated gas. It is not necessary for the incoming particle to supply energy for the creation of the track, so there is no need to collapse its wave function. The straightness of the tracks is explained by Mott as an ordinary consequence of time-evolution of the wave function. There is no experimental proof that a single "particle" cannot be responsible for multiple tracks in the cloud chamber, because the tracks are not tagged according to which particle created them.