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Every element with atomic number lower than lead has a most stable isotope that predominates in nature. Lead(Pb)-208 is the heaviest known stable nucleus and most stable heavy metal. The stability is determined by least amount of binding energy required for keeping the nucleus together. There are a number of factors at play here such as nucleon spin, odd-even proton number, coulomb repulsion, polymericisomeric quantum levels, etc whose interplay is non-trivial and beyond the scope of question.

Unstable and meta-stable isotopes are caused by external radiation or neutron absorption. These nuclear reactions that result in unstable nuclei are endothermic (requires energy input). For example, Carbon-14 is generated when normal Nitrogen-14 is bombarded by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. The radioactive isotopes exothermic decay back to the stable nucleus in an exponentially decreasing statistical time period know as half-life due to quantum tunneling.

Every element with atomic number lower than lead has a most stable isotope that predominates in nature. Lead(Pb)-208 is the heaviest known stable nucleus and most stable heavy metal. The stability is determined by least amount of binding energy required for keeping the nucleus together. There are a number of factors at play here such as nucleon spin, odd-even proton number, coulomb repulsion, polymeric quantum levels, etc whose interplay is non-trivial and beyond the scope of question.

Unstable and meta-stable isotopes are caused by external radiation or neutron absorption. These nuclear reactions that result in unstable nuclei are endothermic (requires energy input). For example, Carbon-14 is generated when normal Nitrogen-14 is bombarded by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. The radioactive isotopes exothermic decay back to the stable nucleus in an exponentially decreasing statistical time period know as half-life due to quantum tunneling.

Every element with atomic number lower than lead has a most stable isotope that predominates in nature. Lead(Pb)-208 is the heaviest known stable nucleus and most stable heavy metal. The stability is determined by least amount of binding energy required for keeping the nucleus together. There are a number of factors at play here such as nucleon spin, odd-even proton number, coulomb repulsion, isomeric quantum levels, etc whose interplay is non-trivial and beyond the scope of question.

Unstable and meta-stable isotopes are caused by external radiation or neutron absorption. These nuclear reactions that result in unstable nuclei are endothermic (requires energy input). For example, Carbon-14 is generated when normal Nitrogen-14 is bombarded by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. The radioactive isotopes exothermic decay back to the stable nucleus in an exponentially decreasing statistical time period know as half-life due to quantum tunneling.

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Every element with atomic number lower than lead has a most stable isotope that predominates in nature. Lead(Pb)-208 is the heaviest known stableheaviest known stable nucleus and most stable heavy metal. The stability is determined by least amount of binding energy required for keeping the nucleus together. There are a number of factors at play here such as neutronnucleon spin, odd-even proton number, coulomb repulsion, polymeric quantum levels, etc whose interplay is non-trivial and beyond the scope of question.

Unstable and metastablemeta-stable isotopes are caused by external radiation or neutron absorption. forThese nuclear reactions that result in unstable nuclei are endothermic (requires energy input). For example, Carbon-14 is generated when normal Nitrogen-14 is bombarded by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. The radioactive isotopes exothermic decay back to the stable isotopenucleus in an exponentially decreasing statistical time period know as half-life due to quantum tunneling.

Every element with atomic number lower than lead has a most stable isotope that predominates in nature. Lead-208 is the heaviest known stable nucleus and most stable heavy metal. The stability is determined by least amount of binding energy required for keeping the nucleus together. There are a number of factors at play here such as neutron spin, odd-even proton number, coulomb repulsion, polymeric quantum levels, etc whose interplay is non-trivial and beyond the scope of question.

Unstable and metastable isotopes are caused by external radiation or neutron absorption. for example, Carbon-14 is generated when normal Nitrogen-14 is bombarded by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. The radioactive isotopes decay back to the stable isotope in an exponentially decreasing statistical time period know as half-life due to quantum tunneling.

Every element with atomic number lower than lead has a most stable isotope that predominates in nature. Lead(Pb)-208 is the heaviest known stable nucleus and most stable heavy metal. The stability is determined by least amount of binding energy required for keeping the nucleus together. There are a number of factors at play here such as nucleon spin, odd-even proton number, coulomb repulsion, polymeric quantum levels, etc whose interplay is non-trivial and beyond the scope of question.

Unstable and meta-stable isotopes are caused by external radiation or neutron absorption. These nuclear reactions that result in unstable nuclei are endothermic (requires energy input). For example, Carbon-14 is generated when normal Nitrogen-14 is bombarded by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. The radioactive isotopes exothermic decay back to the stable nucleus in an exponentially decreasing statistical time period know as half-life due to quantum tunneling.

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Every element with atomic number lower than ironlead has a most stable isotope that predominates in nature. The Lead-208 is the heaviest known stable nucleus and most stable heavy metal. The stability is determined by least amount of binding energy required for keeping the nucleus together. There are a number of factors at play here such as neutron spin, odd-even proton number, coulomb repulsion, polymeric quantum levels, etc whose interplay is non-trivial and beyond the scope of question.

Unstable and metastable isotopes are caused by external radiation or neutron absorption. for example, Carbon-14 is generated when normal Nitrogen-14 is bombarded by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. The radioactive isotopes decay back to the stable isotope in an exponentially decreasing statistical time period know as half-life due to quantum tunneling.

Every element with atomic number lower than iron has a most stable isotope that predominates in nature. The stability is determined by least amount of binding energy required for keeping the nucleus together. There are a number of factors at play here such as neutron spin, odd-even proton number, coulomb repulsion, polymeric quantum levels, etc whose interplay is non-trivial and beyond the scope of question.

Unstable and metastable isotopes are caused by external radiation or neutron absorption. for example, Carbon-14 is generated when normal Nitrogen-14 is bombarded by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. The radioactive isotopes decay back to the stable isotope in an exponentially decreasing statistical time period know as half-life due to quantum tunneling.

Every element with atomic number lower than lead has a most stable isotope that predominates in nature. Lead-208 is the heaviest known stable nucleus and most stable heavy metal. The stability is determined by least amount of binding energy required for keeping the nucleus together. There are a number of factors at play here such as neutron spin, odd-even proton number, coulomb repulsion, polymeric quantum levels, etc whose interplay is non-trivial and beyond the scope of question.

Unstable and metastable isotopes are caused by external radiation or neutron absorption. for example, Carbon-14 is generated when normal Nitrogen-14 is bombarded by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. The radioactive isotopes decay back to the stable isotope in an exponentially decreasing statistical time period know as half-life due to quantum tunneling.

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