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Instantons are characterized by the winding number and a set of collective parameters (e.g. location of the centers of the instantons, their sizes and the inequivalent orientations in the global group space / space-time). Quantum fluctuations of a unit winding number instanton can either leave the collective parameters unchanged (non-zero modes), or change ...


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$SU(N)$ is the $N$-fold cover of $PSU(N)$. They share the same Lie algebra, so the Yang-Mills action would look identical locally. The center of $SU(N)$ is just $Z_N$. At the level of representations, the fundamental representation of $SU(N)$ is a projective representation of $PU(N)$, and only the adjoint ones are linear representations of $PU(N)$. If the ...



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