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The propagation of sound over distance definitely changes with weather; but perhaps not the way you think. For example, it is my experience that if you stand at the shore of a quiet lake (say 1 km across) at night, you can hear sounds from the opposite shore. This is a result of changes in the density of the air, which gives a "focusing" effect. ...


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Clouds can form at a temperature minimum. Above the clouds the temperature may increase sharply. The sound speed increases $T^{1/2}$, so immediately above a temperature inversion, there can be a region of decreasing (sound) refractive index. This can have the effect of bending sound waves back towards the Earth. The phenomenon is more normally noticed on ...


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The only way to answer your question is by means of experimentation. As your post implies, the mind sure plays tricks on itself. And how we perceive the world is not how the world actually is. So get yourself a decent sound meter and get measuring! Should you find some effect the question then becomes "how and why?" That would be an interesting question ...


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While Kieran Hunt's answer is very good, a more blunt answer is that no, there is not such an algorithm. The easiest way to see that there is not consider not physics but economics. There are a large number of economically-important events which are crucially dependent on whether or not it rains -- as an example when wheat is harvested its moisture content ...


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Read the "Formula" section of that Wikipedia article again. It gives a second set of coefficients which are good for humidities from 0-80%.



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