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16

In fact ice is slightly less reflective than water. The reflectivity is related to the refractive index (in a rather complicated way) and the refractive index of ice is 1.31 while the refractive index of water is 1.33. The slightly lower refractive index of ice will cause a slightly lower reflectivity. In both cases the reflectivity is about 0.05 i.e. at an ...


12

I looked up some of the original publications by Harmon Craig. There are a ton of them, and they are very highly cited. For example, in Isotopic exchange effects in the evaporation of water: 1. Low-temperature experimental results (Journal of Geophysical Research, 1963 - DOI 10.1029/JZ068i017p05079) the abstract states: The deuterium and oxygen 18 ...


6

Yes the core will warm gradually. Heat transfer in a solid is conduction. Ice has a known thermal conductivity and will have a linear temperature profile from all paths from surface to center. There will be concentric rings of constant temperature at all times. It would be impossible to warm just the surface and not warm up the molecules next to the ...


5

According to "Surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles produced by laser ablation in aqueous media." Sylvestre J-P, Poulin S, Kabashin AV, Sacher E, Meunier M, Luong JHT http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jp047134%2B A detailed chemical analysis showed that the nanoparticles formed were partially oxidized by the oxygen present in solution. The ...


4

I guess the isotopic composition of seawater depends on temperature, among other things, as water comprising lighter isotopes evaporates more easily.


1

The water in the Oceans is partly 1) the original water from their formation and this will have come into equilibrium with the underlying strata of earth. These strongly depend on location for the chemicals composing them and this will apply to the isotopes in these chemicals 2) Rain water which brings down whatever dust exists in the atmosphere, and ...


1

The evaportation rate is given by $${dM \over dt} \sim T$$ where $M$ is the amount of evaporated water and $t$ is the time. $T$ is the temperature of the water. However, $${dM \over dt} \sim Q$$ Where Q is the charge of the water, to prove my point, consider a lightning bolt impacting water. The water is split into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. ...


1

There are lots of tried and tested methods for visualising flows, for example mica or aluminium flakes though these tend to settle fairly quickly. In days gone by I used zirconium phosphate that had been delaminated by titrating with tetramethyl ammonia. This gives very thin flakes that are stable to sedimentation for a day or so, though you have to prepare ...


1

This phenomenon is due to the presence of air bubbles in the water. First note that the solubility of air in water decreases as temperature increases. Therefore when water is heated, less air can be dissolved in the water and when the water leaves the highly pressurized pipes, the air within the water is able to form bubbles and escape into the surrounding ...


1

If you place water (or other material) in a pressure-tight container, the water will change as heat and pressure cause its molecules to become more or less energetic and the bonds among its molecules to become more or less stable, or begin breaking apart. These changes are summarized in a chart called a phase diagram. Here is a simple phase diagram for ...


1

The opening sees water at stagnation pressure. Water will flow in until the air in the bottle is squeezed to that pressure.


1

If you are above the water you will get accelerated down until the weight of the water you disperse is equal to your own weight (calling this level $x$). As soon as you are completely submerged the gravitational force downwards will be $\rho Vg$ and by Archimedes principle the force upwards will be $\rho_w V g$, where $\rho$ is your density, $V$ is your ...


1

In fact, the water would act as a neutron moderator, speeding up the reaction. However, reactor pressure vessels are quite sturdy, and it would be very unlikely for the salt water to enter the pressure vessel.



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