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When water leaves the bottle, the pressure above it drops. This reduces the net force pushing the water out of the opening, until it stops and a bubble can rise up. When the bubble has left the mouth of the bottle, the water can start flowing again. The stop-start of the water, and the reduced pressure inside the bottle, contribute to the lower flow rate in ...


Assuming you start with a full bottle of water, when you tip the bottle upside down, a 'partial vacuum' (ie below atmospheric pressure) is created at top of the bottle as the water pours out the bottom. Atmospheric air then 'bubbles through' the mouth of the bottle to compensate. This slows down the flow of water through the mouth of the bottle. Each time ...


I think you've understood it all, air gets into the bottle faster. Without the vortex, the air is able to pull on the liquid, preventing it from escaping. This is why you can pour orange juice faster if the opening is at the top, rather than the bottom. It also stops it splashing.

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