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72

The spirals are used to prevent the formation of Kármán vortex sheets downwind of the chimney. They work by diverting the wind upwards on one side of the chimney and downwards on the other, creating a three-dimensional airflow pattern that disrupts the vortex sheet. Without them, the vortex shedding could cause vortex-induced vibration in the chimney, ...


28

Assuming you start with a full bottle of water, when you tip the bottle upside down, a 'partial vacuum' (ie below atmospheric pressure) is created at top of the bottle as the water pours out the bottom. Atmospheric air then 'bubbles through' the mouth of the bottle to compensate. This slows down the flow of water through the mouth of the bottle. Each time ...


23

When water leaves the bottle, the pressure above it drops. This reduces the net force pushing the water out of the opening, until it stops and a bubble can rise up. When the bubble has left the mouth of the bottle, the water can start flowing again. The stop-start of the water, and the reduced pressure inside the bottle, contribute to the lower flow rate in ...


13

The whirl is due to the net angular momentum the water has before it starts draining, which is pretty much random. If the circulation were due to Coriolis forces, the water would always drain in the same direction, but I did the experiment with my sink just now and observed the water to spin different directions on different trials. The Coriolis force is ...


11

Yes, it is possible to guide magnetic field lines using a shaped magnetic material. Just as field lines concentrate when entering the south pole of a magnet from a large area, an external magnetic field can be "gathered" using, for example, a cone-shaped piece of iron. The cone can be positioned such that the static field spread over a large area enters the ...


11

Intuitive start of an answer: If you have counter rotating vortices they have zero net angular momentum (to first order). If they merged they would have to have no motion -> where did the energy go. In between the two axes of rotation the fluid moves in the same direction and has no mechanism for dissipation. By contrast for two vortices with the same ...


10

The Kutta condition is completely artificial. The potential equations are completely artificial. The potential equations are a mathematical construct we use because it's much simpler than the full Navier-Stokes set of equations. We know the Kutta condition is never actually upheld in any real flow ever. However, when we perform all of our mathematical ...


9

Because where they come close together the air in between circulates in such a way as to join them in a single path. Floris is right, but maybe this picture helps.


9

The Coriolis acceleration goes like $-2\omega \times v$, which for the sake of an order of magnitude estimate we can take to be $a\sim \omega v$. But in order to get an observable effect, we don't just need an acceleration, we need a difference in acceleration between the two ends of the tub, which are separated by some distance $L\sim 1$ m. The ...


8

So how this is done is a bit of a black art, much like how you choose what to use for other non-dimensional numbers in fluids (like Reynolds number). But you sort of have it backwards. You don't want to compute $St$ to find the shedding frequency; $St$ is good if you want to compare flows over different conditions but want to show the physics is the same, or ...


5

Since you want to explain it to your daughter, take a plastic bottle, cut the bottom open, turn it upside town, hold the top closed and fill it with water. Give her that bottle and have her release the top (which is on the bottom now, sorry for the bad phrasing). The water will whirl in different orientations whenever you repeat this (if it whirls at all) ...


4

This is a reasonable question. At the scale of a waterspout, the inertial forces of fast-moving air should be large compared to the viscous forces (i.e., very large Reynolds number). Yet the inflow along the surface of the water is laminar, where we would ordinarily expect boundary-layer vorticity (i.e., turbulence). A detailed description of the expected ...


4

Self-sustaining vortices without dissipation (energy loss) are possible in superfluids (like, e.g., liquid helium) because there is no internal friction (viscosity) for the superfluid component. Rotation goes on by inertia. This is as close a I can imagine to a "self-sustaining vortex" although admittedly has little to do with space-time.


4

I think @Killercam is right, I'll try to explain the same thing a little more elaborately. Firstly. in the case considered, since the fluid and the cylinder is chosen, increase in velocity directly translates to increase in the Reynolds number as $R_e = \frac{\rho V D}{\mu}$. Before considering flow in the range $250 < R_e < 2\times 10^5$ , lets ...


4

The difference between rain and water in the sink is that rain is simply falling, while water in the sink is being drawn into a center from a distance away, and the water in the sink is not perfectly still. It is rotating, if only a little bit. As it is drawn to the center, the rotation becomes more rapid. The principle is Conservation of Angular Momentum. ...


4

A fluid motion in a vortex creates a dynamic pressure that is lowest in the center increasing radially ($P \propto r^2$). The gradient of this pressure that forces the fluid to rotate around the axis. This is usually represented by a vector called vorticity, and defined by $\omega = \nabla \times v$. In simple terms, this means that the fluid is ...


4

Ultimately, the Navier-Stokes equations explain this :) OK, that's not a useful answer: here's how they explain the phenomenon in some cases. Under steady state conditions for a fluid (inviscid, incompressible) that doesn't differ too much from a cup of tea, the Vorticity Transport Equation shows that the vorticity $\omega = \nabla \times \vec{v}$ (the curl ...


4

The Wikipedia page on Dust Devils explains it quite well: Dust devils form when hot air near the surface rises quickly through a small pocket of cooler, low- pressure air above it. If conditions are just right, the air may begin to rotate. As the air rapidly rises, the column of hot air is stretched vertically, thereby moving mass closer to the ...


4

The fly is carried away within the turbulent motion of the air the moving car generates. Therefore, it stays close to the car (for a short while) and returns without actually having to fly at 80 mph. -> Answer to your second question: No! A google search for "turbulence around car/obstacle/plane" gives colourful pictures of the wind field around moving ...


4

As best I have been able to tell, vortex air intakes are mostly a scam designed to sell useless car modifications to people, as discussed on this HowStuffWorks article. In case of the inevitable future link rot, I'll paste the article below: The internal combustion engines in cars and trucks are essentially large air pumps: The action of the pistons ...


4

I think you've understood it all, air gets into the bottle faster. Without the vortex, the air is able to pull on the liquid, preventing it from escaping. This is why you can pour orange juice faster if the opening is at the top, rather than the bottom. It also stops it splashing.


3

Consider the Navier-Stokes equations $$\frac{\partial \bf{u}}{\partial t}+\bf{u}\cdot\nabla \bf{u}=-\nabla p+\nu \nabla^2\bf{u}.$$ We can rewrite the inertial term as $$\bf{u}\cdot\nabla \bf{u}=\frac{1}{2}\bf{u}^2-\bf{u}\times\boldsymbol{\omega}.$$ Therefore, the Navier-Stokes equations can be rewritten as $$\frac{\partial \bf{u}}{\partial ...


3

First important thing to understand is that vortices and vorticity are not the same thing, despite the similarity of the words. A vortex is a region in a flow with spinning features (at a rather large scale if you wish), but it may be irrotational (zero vorticity). Vorticity is a local property of the fluid, the rate of rotation of an imaginary particle ...


3

According to Heimholz second theorem it goes all the way. It even can't end in the fluid. You of course mean just the air, but it's merely a matter of how the situation is developing. If the flow conditions goes over Froude number 1 you will allways have the connection. It's explained here; Air core Vortex; Physical explanation of the "air Entrainment ...


3

Bernoulli's equation does not require that the flow be irrotational, just inviscid. Let's consider a vortex filament, and denote its surface by $S$ and volume by $V$. Using the identity you mentioned above, Euler's equation can be written as: $$ \rho\frac{\partial \boldsymbol{u}}{\partial t} + ...


3

A vortex ring has a finite core radius $a$. The circular line vortex is a vortex ring with an infinitesimal core radius $a\to 0$. It is unphysical and only occurs in an inviscid fluid.


3

Yes, the velocity field inside the ellipse is really zero. To convince myself of it I have run a few numeric evaluations of the integral for various $(a,b)$ and $(x,y)$. Here is how can we obtain this result analytically. First, we introduce the elliptical coordinate system with coordinates $\chi$, $\theta$: $$x = c \cosh \chi \cos \theta, \qquad y = c ...


3

In basic principle, both could do the same thing. Pragmatically, water in a drain has the resistance of the sink/drain walls to influence the effect. (This is a hairpin vortex regime.) Basically, vortices differ per sink. Surface tension of a rain drop exceeds wind friction. Coriolis forces still exist within the rain drop, and could produce a ...


3

The velocity of the flow divided by the diameter of the cylinder is the typical crossing time of the fluid, hence is directly related to the frequency of the observed oscillations for a specific Reynolds number. It is as simple as that. Clearly, this time scale is then correlated with observation to provide the Strouhal number for this particular phenomenon. ...



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