# Tag Info

74

The spirals are used to prevent the formation of Kármán vortex sheets downwind of the chimney. They work by diverting the wind upwards on one side of the chimney and downwards on the other, creating a three-dimensional airflow pattern that disrupts the vortex sheet. Without them, the vortex shedding could cause vortex-induced vibration in the chimney, ...

28

Assuming you start with a full bottle of water, when you tip the bottle upside down, a 'partial vacuum' (ie below atmospheric pressure) is created at top of the bottle as the water pours out the bottom. Atmospheric air then 'bubbles through' the mouth of the bottle to compensate. This slows down the flow of water through the mouth of the bottle. Each time ...

24

When water leaves the bottle, the pressure above it drops. This reduces the net force pushing the water out of the opening, until it stops and a bubble can rise up. When the bubble has left the mouth of the bottle, the water can start flowing again. The stop-start of the water, and the reduced pressure inside the bottle, contribute to the lower flow rate in ...

13

The whirl is due to the net angular momentum the water has before it starts draining, which is pretty much random. If the circulation were due to Coriolis forces, the water would always drain in the same direction, but I did the experiment with my sink just now and observed the water to spin different directions on different trials. The Coriolis force is ...

11

Yes, it is possible to guide magnetic field lines using a shaped magnetic material. Just as field lines concentrate when entering the south pole of a magnet from a large area, an external magnetic field can be "gathered" using, for example, a cone-shaped piece of iron. The cone can be positioned such that the static field spread over a large area enters the ...

11

Intuitive start of an answer: If you have counter rotating vortices they have zero net angular momentum (to first order). If they merged they would have to have no motion -> where did the energy go. In between the two axes of rotation the fluid moves in the same direction and has no mechanism for dissipation. By contrast for two vortices with the same ...

10

The Coriolis acceleration goes like $-2\omega \times v$, which for the sake of an order of magnitude estimate we can take to be $a\sim \omega v$. But in order to get an observable effect, we don't just need an acceleration, we need a difference in acceleration between the two ends of the tub, which are separated by some distance $L\sim 1$ m. The ...

10

The Kutta condition is completely artificial. The potential equations are completely artificial. The potential equations are a mathematical construct we use because it's much simpler than the full Navier-Stokes set of equations. We know the Kutta condition is never actually upheld in any real flow ever. However, when we perform all of our mathematical ...

9

Because where they come close together the air in between circulates in such a way as to join them in a single path. Floris is right, but maybe this picture helps.

8

So how this is done is a bit of a black art, much like how you choose what to use for other non-dimensional numbers in fluids (like Reynolds number). But you sort of have it backwards. You don't want to compute $St$ to find the shedding frequency; $St$ is good if you want to compare flows over different conditions but want to show the physics is the same, or ...

5

Since you want to explain it to your daughter, take a plastic bottle, cut the bottom open, turn it upside town, hold the top closed and fill it with water. Give her that bottle and have her release the top (which is on the bottom now, sorry for the bad phrasing). The water will whirl in different orientations whenever you repeat this (if it whirls at all) ...

4

Self-sustaining vortices without dissipation (energy loss) are possible in superfluids (like, e.g., liquid helium) because there is no internal friction (viscosity) for the superfluid component. Rotation goes on by inertia. This is as close a I can imagine to a "self-sustaining vortex" although admittedly has little to do with space-time.

4

This is a reasonable question. At the scale of a waterspout, the inertial forces of fast-moving air should be large compared to the viscous forces (i.e., very large Reynolds number). Yet the inflow along the surface of the water is laminar, where we would ordinarily expect boundary-layer vorticity (i.e., turbulence). A detailed description of the expected ...

4

I think @Killercam is right, I'll try to explain the same thing a little more elaborately. Firstly. in the case considered, since the fluid and the cylinder is chosen, increase in velocity directly translates to increase in the Reynolds number as $R_e = \frac{\rho V D}{\mu}$. Before considering flow in the range $250 < R_e < 2\times 10^5$ , lets ...

4

The difference between rain and water in the sink is that rain is simply falling, while water in the sink is being drawn into a center from a distance away, and the water in the sink is not perfectly still. It is rotating, if only a little bit. As it is drawn to the center, the rotation becomes more rapid. The principle is Conservation of Angular Momentum. ...

4

A fluid motion in a vortex creates a dynamic pressure that is lowest in the center increasing radially ($P \propto r^2$). The gradient of this pressure that forces the fluid to rotate around the axis. This is usually represented by a vector called vorticity, and defined by $\omega = \nabla \times v$. In simple terms, this means that the fluid is ...

4

The Wikipedia page on Dust Devils explains it quite well: Dust devils form when hot air near the surface rises quickly through a small pocket of cooler, low- pressure air above it. If conditions are just right, the air may begin to rotate. As the air rapidly rises, the column of hot air is stretched vertically, thereby moving mass closer to the ...

4

The fly is carried away within the turbulent motion of the air the moving car generates. Therefore, it stays close to the car (for a short while) and returns without actually having to fly at 80 mph. -> Answer to your second question: No! A google search for "turbulence around car/obstacle/plane" gives colourful pictures of the wind field around moving ...

4

As best I have been able to tell, vortex air intakes are mostly a scam designed to sell useless car modifications to people, as discussed on this HowStuffWorks article. In case of the inevitable future link rot, I'll paste the article below: The internal combustion engines in cars and trucks are essentially large air pumps: The action of the pistons ...

4

Ultimately, the Navier-Stokes equations explain this :) OK, that's not a useful answer: here's how they explain the phenomenon in some cases. Under steady state conditions for a fluid (inviscid, incompressible) that doesn't differ too much from a cup of tea, the Vorticity Transport Equation shows that the vorticity $\omega = \nabla \times \vec{v}$ (the curl ...

4

I think you've understood it all, air gets into the bottle faster. Without the vortex, the air is able to pull on the liquid, preventing it from escaping. This is why you can pour orange juice faster if the opening is at the top, rather than the bottom. It also stops it splashing.

4

The vortex forms due to a process called vortex stretching. Essentially as soon as the plug is pulled and the tank begins draining, a vortex forms at the center of the drain where the length of the vortex line is increased, which in turn increases the rotation rate and the familiar tornado shape forms. The only surefire way to ensure that the vortex does ...

3

First important thing to understand is that vortices and vorticity are not the same thing, despite the similarity of the words. A vortex is a region in a flow with spinning features (at a rather large scale if you wish), but it may be irrotational (zero vorticity). Vorticity is a local property of the fluid, the rate of rotation of an imaginary particle ...

3

In basic principle, both could do the same thing. Pragmatically, water in a drain has the resistance of the sink/drain walls to influence the effect. (This is a hairpin vortex regime.) Basically, vortices differ per sink. Surface tension of a rain drop exceeds wind friction. Coriolis forces still exist within the rain drop, and could produce a ...

3

If you take a body of fluid having some angular momentum, like air or water in a bathtub, and draw it toward a center, such as by draining it down a hole, or draining it up with heat, it's going to concentrate its angular momentum in a smaller volume. That's how you get a vortex. Tornadoes happen when angular momentum of air is concentrated sufficiently in ...

3

Firstly let us define what is meant by turbulent and laminar in a case such as the one you describe... The Reynolds number of a flow gives a measure of the relative importance of inertial forces (associated with convective flow) and viscos forces. From experimental observations it is seen that for values of Re below the so-called critical Reynolds number ...

3

They will equalize pressure at the entrance to the tube between them. That pressure is the density of the fluid times the height from the bottom to the lowest point in the vortex, because the fluid at the lowest point has zero velocity and so is equivalent to standing fluid.

3

The velocity of the flow divided by the diameter of the cylinder is the typical crossing time of the fluid, hence is directly related to the frequency of the observed oscillations for a specific Reynolds number. It is as simple as that. Clearly, this time scale is then correlated with observation to provide the Strouhal number for this particular phenomenon. ...

3

This is basically what a solenoid does. You have multiple current rings, and "within" the solenoid the magnetic field loops are concentrated whereas outside they are very weak and actually divergent in the limiting case. A much more interesting questions is if one could design a solenoid or solenoid like structure which "minimizes" the magnetic fields and ...

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