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I have solved my problem with some careful head scratching and reading. It turns out I misread the paragraph after Eq. (2.9). This is NOT the integration formula, just a statement of the boundary condition value for P as R -> inf and U -> constant. It provides the first two values needed for the rest of the inwards integration. The correct formula to use ...


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Why the rear window? The sound occurs when wind is blown across a lip: At the arrow, the wind is blowing like the air that a flutist blows across the mouthpiece - so it sets up a resonance. Now for a resonance to work, the cavity must have a sufficiently high "Q" - quality factor. The air must reflect from most surfaces, and only have a limited chance ...


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There are 3 ways for a molecule to store energy, excluding electronic energy. Those three ways are translation (the molecule just moving), rotation, and vibration. All molecules can translate in each of the three Cartesian planes. You can also imagine that a non-linear molecule, could rotate in all the planes (xy plane, xz plane, yz plane). A linear molecule ...


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I am not too certain of what you are asking. If you are asking why do we not look at a molecule and then just identify the number of independent modes of vibration the answer is that it would be too hard. Real oscillations are a linear superposition of these normal modes, even undergrad spectra are often complicated. Only very simple diatomic give nice Raman ...


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Such a device is actually realised in synchrotron radiation sources as the so-called figure-8 undulator; this paper is the earliest reference I was able to find, and a Google search yields many (freely-available) descriptions of the method. These devices superpose two linearly-polarized oscillations on the electron's motion, one having half the period of the ...



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