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To answer this we need to talk a bit about how particles are described in quantum field theory. For every type of particle there is an associated quantum field. So for the electron there is an electron field, for the photon there is a photon field, and so on. These quantum fields occupy all of spacetime i.e. they exist everywhere in space and everywhere in ...


@JohnDuffield: I can give you both a correct answer in simple terms and the fairy tale, together with references to an explanation how the fairy tale is related to the real thing! The dry facts are that two real particles (e.g., an electron and a positron) are created from the energy in the very strong gravitational field near the horizon of the black hole ...


There are many ways to think about the entropy of a vacuum (assuming there is no radiation and thus T=0), but all give the same result, the entropy is zero. One easy way is to notice that the walls are made of something (it doesn't matter what) that cannot change its state, so the number of microstates, $\Omega$, is equal to 1. Then $S=k\ln\Omega=0$.

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