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Convert the masses into energy by multiplying them by c^2. Learn what percentage of each one there were, know the energy of the universe at that point... Find what percent of that is each particle... Remember, positrons and electrons are antiparticles and therefore have the same (rest)-mass. As for Photons at that time, determine their energy. Then sum it ...


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According to quantum mechanics the time evolution of the universe is described by a path integral that will sum over all histories. If we consider a robot whose processor runs at a clock cycle of $\tau$ to simplify things, then all the possible time evolutions during that period of $\tau$ will contribute to explain the robot's observations, including the ...


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Fortunately for experiments in physics we have better proxies than the accuracies of our five senses. We have detectors and computers and .... With these tools a theory of how the universe is made has been developed, from elementary particles with the theory of quantum mechanics building up the observables around us, to the astrophysical models that fit ...


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Quite a philosophical approach. There is still the reliance on our four other senses in order to make sense of our physical world, however the same approach can be imply to those senses also with the delay in neurological impulses. One must also take into account, as you would call it, the in between frames of other people's perceptions, as well as those ...


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I join the comments of Julian Fernandez. Just some hints for some of your ideas: Spacetime is relative i.e. observer-depending. It seems that behind relative spacetime there is a system of absolute time (= proper time) and absolute space (=space without considering time dilation and length contraction which are relative) where spacetime is "mixing up" ...


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Nobody has managed to simulate anything except the most trivial quantum systems on a classical computer. One of the reasons people are so keen to develop quantum computers is that they are ideally suited to simulating quantum systems and real life problems that involve QM, most notably things in chemistry and biology. Quantum computing promises to be ...


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Here is the scenario from wikipedia According to inflation theory, the inflaton is a scalar field that is responsible for cosmic inflation in the very early universe. A quantized particle for this field is expected, similar to other quantum fields, called an inflaton. The field provides a mechanism by which a period of rapid expansion from 10^−35 to ...


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Which scientists have called dark matter and dark energy forces? Dark matter is a form of matter that doesn't feel any force other than gravity (so far as we have observed). It's true that dark matter bends light because it has mass and it makes up about $5/6$ of all the mass in the universe. The gravity from this mass is what bends light through ...


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You assume homogeneous and isotropic structure. That limits the possibilities as follows: It is just as likely that there are observers at the 'edge' of our Observable Universe as there are here. Assume two exist opposite each other. They both see the same Universe we do. Repeat the argument with them. Now consider they could be in any direction. So, instead ...


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By definition, anything outside of the observable universe is unobservable. This has the annoying effect (eye twitch) of making it so we have practically no idea what the universe is actually like outside of what we can observe. We can assume that it is homogeneous and isotropic and that there are other large galaxies out there, but there is a non-zero ...


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Somewhere between zero and infinity, if one believes the eternal inflation scenario. BTW, Max Tegmark covers some of this here Eternal inflation posits that in the false vacuum from which our own universe inflated there may be any number of others doing the same, beyond our event horizon, all with various combinations of starting conditions and fundamental ...


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What are their purpose? The "purposes" of Hyperbolic geometries are many and varied in mathematics, but one stands out far beyond all others, at least historically as the purpose. Hyperbolic geometries were constructed to prove that the Euclid parallel postulate (see "Parallel Postulate" Wiki page) was logically independent of Euclid's other axioms of ...


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The purpose of any model of the hyperbolic plane is that some aspect in it will be easy to work with computationally or intuitively, e.g. writing out certain isometries, identifying geodesics, computing volumes, etc. Hyperbolic space is unbounded, a hyperbolic manifold can be bounded. I don't know Yes If you are not using the terms bounded and infinite to ...


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The volume of the universe is infinite, therefore there must be an infinite number of worlds. But not all of them are populated; therefore only a finite number are. Any finite number divided by infinity is as close to zero as makes no odds, therefore we can state that the population of the Universe to zero, and anyone you have ever met is merely a figment ...


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It seems like a lot of your problem, aside from the fact that small structures have causal contact so much a part of them that it is difficult to imagine objects so far apart that they do not even have gravitational contact, is that space is bent. And it is bent to a very high degree. Going in any direction in as straight a line as you can go (wtih any ...


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The question is complicated by a lack of vocabulary for many features of the universe. The universe is thought to be "boundless" but finite. But that is not the same thing as "infinite". It simply has no edges or ends. That is a consequence more of the effect of curved space than of anything else. If you try to travel to the "edge" of the universe, you ...


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An alternative method to John's answer is to look at the total number of atoms in the observable universe. Thanks to measurements of the cosmic microwave background, we have a fairly precise estimate of this number. Indeed, we know that ordinary matter makes up about 4.9% of the energy content of the universe. In this previous post, I calculated that this ...


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The answer would appear to be "yes", assuming every possible state exists at least once. Tegmark did a calculation of the approximate distance between "You" and the next identical instance of "You" in such a universe as 10^10^29 meters away


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I could probably go along with this assertion; except that the observable universe is not infinite. We can only see light reaching us from about 13 billion light years away. The stars/galaxies etc that formed in those distant regions are now even further away from us, but nevertheless, the observable universe is finite. Expansion of the Universe, will light ...



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