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If time-reversal symmetry is broken at the surface of a topological insulator, a gap could open at the Dirac point of the topological surface state. The Dirac point, where forward- and backward-moving electrons have the same energy, is located at a time-reversal invariant momentum point (also called a Kramer's point) in the reciprocal space (the crystal ...


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Maybe it is R. Jackiw and C. Rebbi (Phys. Rev. D 13, 3398) When explaining the quantum Hall effect, Hasan and Kane (Rev. Mod.Phys. 2010, 82: 3045–3067) said "This interplay between topology and gapless modes is ubiquitous in physics and has appeared in many contexts. It was originally found by Jackiw and Rebbi (1976) in their analysis of a 1D field theory" ...


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I believe it was Xiao-Gang Wen in 1989, see also this 1994 paper by him and his collaborators http://dao.mit.edu/~wen/pub/ednab.pdf He's at MIT. I was once hosting a seminar by him, he is one of the most creative and playful folks in this segment of condensed matter physics. The paper above contains some other relevant references, including a paper by ...



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