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I dont think it's a problem, that the satellite is accelerating. Locally the time will nevertheless run slower. If the camera is directed onto a watch, you would see it ticking more slowly. If the webcam is directed on the outside, you will see the normal speed of happenings, e.g. it would show you the same number of rounds as you have seen by looking at ...


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Since the traveller is circling Earth, he/she is actually accelerated. So his/her frame of reference is not inertial (if we take that of the beholder to be inertial). The two points of views are then not equivalent, unlike those in the twins paradox. If I'm not mistaken, one may show that the beholder will "see" the traveller be slower, and the traveller ...


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I will address the title, ignoring the content of the question . If I repeated a quantum measurement, would it be the same? This is the method of gathering data in particle physics in order to check with as good an accuracy as possible the quantum mechanical predictions for the interactions. For example one sets up a beam of identical particles ...


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All Visser is saying is that you don't have a true time machine until the machine is able to jump into your past "light cone". Your past light cone is the region of spacetime containing all past events that could have possibly affected your present. This diagram taken from p. 284 of a nice book on wormhole physics might clear things up for you.


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As you said, the result of the measurment depends on probability. Each eigenvalue (i.e. result of a measurment) has a certain probability of coming out when a some characteristic of the system is measured. Think of this in an easier example. Suppose that you have a pair of dice. Both are exactly the same, so, for both dice, the probability of each number to ...


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"Pushing them together" and "pushing one towards the other" have the same semantic content here; when they are close enough, the geodesic forms a closed, time-like loop. These are known solutions to the Einstein field equations, but all of the proposed physical processes are unphysical. That is, the proposed mechanisms to build a worm hole, much less a ...



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