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the two paradigmatic cases that illustrate these two possibilities is a gas, for the first, and a crystal for the second. Paradigms and examples are well and good, but be careful not to assume they are the only possibilities. In particular, black holes have entropy -- a lot of entropy. In fact they saturate the Beckenstein Bound. The entropy of a black ...


What I will state is speculative and based on the statistical mechanics derivation of entropy, and just the way I view it and do not consider that there exists a problem. After all thermodynamic theory emerges from the underlying statistical level of atomic and molecular interactions. where p_i is the probabability of microstate i. Setting aside quantum ...


I can help you with turbine part of your question. Turbines are employed to derive work in a power cycle. The choice of working fluid doesn't solely depend on turbine alone, you have to consider whole power cycle. For example in Rankine cycle (power cycle employed in Power Plants), water is widely used due to its thermodynamic properties(like high specific ...


In the early Universe, entropy is preserved (dS=0). This comes out of the equations of general relativity, but it can be also understood by thinking in terms of classical dynamics: the Universe is a closed system, no heat is exchanged when expanding, so its entropy must not variate.


"High" and "low" are relative terms that usually also carry an anthropocentric connotation. What "high" means depends on what humans think of as a large quantity but to thermodynamics the absolute scale does not matter! What matters is only that there is a change from one entropic state to another. As long as there is such a change, no matter how slow, there ...


Ovens in the kitchen are not suppose to heat above 450°F. Any type of glass can handle that temperature, if the change in temperature is not too fast. For safety, I would think that tempered glass is used on the ovens.

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