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The light that we see coming from the Sun is mainly due to black body radiation at its surface. The spectrum of black body radiation is statistical in origin, and as long as there are enough processes contributing to it the black body spectrum is independant of the microscopic details and depends only on the temperature. There is a discussion of this in the ...

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Every body in thermal equilibrium radiates the same amount of energy that it receives, otherwise its temperature would change until it attained equilibrium. This is not unique to black bodies. Suppose an object, not necessarily a black body, is at a temperature $T_1$ and its surroundings are at a temperature $T_2$, then the rate of radiation by the object ...

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In the real world, yes you can heat a Black Body. Ideally, any energy absorbed by the Black Body would then be radiated away. Since all the energy is radiated away, there is no energy remaining to raise the temperature of the Black Body.

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Most campuses have a ceramics section to the art department. Gas and electric kilns are great for this. At the temperatures called "cone 9" and "cone 10" everything inside the kiln becomes invisible. It is just red-orange inside. The light bulb is a terrible example. The filament in an insulating chamber with a tiny hole is OK as long as the whole chamber ...

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This is quite a natural confusion. You are correct, were the Solar spectrum purely due to the spectral output of the atoms composing it, we would not be able to get a continuous spectrum. However, the light emitted by the Sun is due to its temperature. All objects that are above $-273.15^{\circ}C$ (so, all objects) emit radiation at a continuous spectrum ...

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