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Both concepts are mathematical in character and they ultimately describe the same characteristics or situations. "Invariance" is a more technical word because it says "what has to be equal to what" for us to say that the symmetry exists. In particular, the "invariance under a symmetry transformation" means that an object, like the action $S$, has the same ...


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V may represent true mass flow, or the flow of density, rather than simply the flow of volume. Q may represent a flow of volume unadjusted for density. TSI toolmaking co. uses Q as "standard flow rate", but they make an instrument that converts Q to "VolumetricFlow" by applying a density correction. See the link for the formula. Another example of this ...



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