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The first thing I want to introduce is the standard candle, which is an astronomical object with a very well known luminosity and emission profile. One of the best standard candles we have is the Type 1a Supernova. This type of supernova only occurs in a very specific way such that all type 1a supernovae have approximately the same luminosity and emission ...


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There are basically two measurements which take place here: (i) the redshift of the supernova (ii) the peak brightness of the supernova (though this latter is a bit more complicated than that). The distance is not found from the redshift, it found from the apparent brightness of the supernovae. The supernovae in question are Type Ia and act as "standard ...


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A recent paper by Dan Whalen titled, Finding the First Cosmic Explosions. I. Pair-instability Supernovae discusses this very problem. The pair-instability supernova (PISNe) is a special case of massive stars, around 100 $M_\odot$, in which the thermal pressure inside the star is reduced via the production of electron-positron pairs. Runaway thermonuclear ...



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