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5

So a while ago I did a little project where I grabbed a "standard solar model" from this paper, which gives me some information that's useful for actually making an estimate. (Unsurprisingly the link given to download the data has changed in the last ten years; I haven't sleuthed to see whether the data is still publicly available.) Only about 1.5% of the ...


0

At the end of your question you ask if there are other ways to express the temperature of the Sun in terms of energy. This is probably not exactly what you're looking for, but from Wien's law $\lambda_{\rm max}T=b$ ($\lambda_{\rm max}$ is the peak wavelength of the Sun's $\sim$blackbody spectrum, $b$ is Wien's displacement constant) and ...


1

Fun, So you are asking about the thermal energy content of the sun? If we assume that all the hydrogen is dissociated. (single atoms) Then each atom has three degrees of freedom and carriers 3/2 kT of energy. So count up the number of atoms at each temperature.... That will work until the atoms ionize. Then there will be equal energy in all the ...


0

The sun is more than a cloud of hot gas that is radiating energy. The sun also has energy stored in hydrogen "fuel" that will be "burned" through nuclear fusion into helium, releasing a lot of energy. The sun is $2 \times 10^{30}$ kg, and about 70% hydrogen, so around $1.4 \times 10^{30}$ kg of hydrogen or $8 \times 10^{56}$ protons. Let's estimate that ...


0

The Earth's atmosphere stops most Gamma Rays. It is "as thick to gamma-rays as a twelve-foot thick plate of aluminum". The Gamma Rays that make it to our atmosphere and impact another particle are absorbed. Secondary particles are produced in this interaction, and these particles can be more penetrating and damaging. Source: Gamma Rays and Our Atmosphere ...


15

That's a good question and I think the answer may surprise you. It turns out that indeed, there's a lot of gamma ray radiation being produced in the sun's core from fusion reactions, so why are we not bombarded by gamma ray radiation? Those gamma ray photons need to escape from the sun's core, into the outer edge, and then finally from the surface. These ...


5

Actually, we don't need a lot of protection from solar gamma rays because they never reach us. Here's Wikipedia's take on the matter: Although the Sun produces Gamma rays as a result of the nuclear fusion process, these super-high-energy photons are converted to lower-energy photons before they reach the Sun's surface and are emitted out into space. As a ...


6

As you can read on wikipedia Sun produces Gamma rays as a result of the nuclear fusion process, these super-high-energy photons are converted to lower-energy photons before they reach the Sun's surface and are emitted out into space. As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma rays. The Sun does, however, emit X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, ...


7

Our primary method of understanding stars is using optical telescopes. We can directly measure the temperature of the "surface" of a star by fitting its spectrum to a blackbody. However, this gives us the temperature only at the "surface" or the optical depth of a visible photon. We know that stars are extremely hot through the hydrodynamic/thermodynamic ...


3

The resolution is much smaller than the granulation pattern. i.e. The granules are well resolved and are of order 500-1000 km in diameter, not 50 km. The sunspot is of order the diameter of the Earth. Granulation is caused by convective cells rising and falling such that they just poke up into the bottom of the photosphere - i.e. that region where most of ...



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