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As anna mentioned, there are non quark models which clarify exotic hadrons. In principle, they are allowed in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Non-quark models predict 1.hybrid mesons: Include quark anti-quark pair and gluon. 2.Glueballs: Gluons are their own bound states. 3.Exotic hadrons as in figure below which exchange pion at low energies (couple ...


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The fact of the matter is that there are no stable mesons, that might conceivably form states bound by the strong force, as the nucleus is bound. Within the nucleus there exist virtual mesons, i.e. described as pions etc but not on mass shell To a large extent, the nuclear force can be understood in terms of the exchange of virtual light mesons, such as ...


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At the Large Hadron Collider we have studied matter down to a length scale of about $10^{-19}$ metres, which is about a billion times smaller than an atom. All the results so far confirm our existing theories. So it seems very unlikely that an undiscovered class of small atoms exists. The size of an atom depends on well understood physical principles. At ...



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