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it is not just that every transition would result in the change of spin this occurs only some times which is explained below Electron Spin The Pauli Exclusion principle states that two electrons in an atom cannot have the same four quantum numbers (n, l, ml, ms) and only two electrons can occupy each orbital where they must have opposite spin states. These ...

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Yes, superpositions can be, and have been, observed using weak measurements. There seems to be some debate about weak measurement and whether it is really observing a superposed state. This isn't my area so I can't comment. If you're interested in learning more there are a fair few questions about weak measurement on this site.

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Perhaps I do not understand the question. When, for instance, a photon is observed in a state of circular polarization it is simultaneously in a superposition of linear polarization states. Every pure quantum state $\psi$ is always a coherent superposition of other quantum states eigenstates of observables which are not defined in the state $\psi$. A ...

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