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Chadwick didn't discover the neutron on purpose, of course. After the discovery of the nucleus by Rutherford in 1911, alpha particles were used to probe its structure. These kind of experiments were pioneered by Rutherford himself (as an example, he discovered in 1917 that the nitrogen nucleus contains hydrogen nuclei, i.e. protons). In 1930, Bothe and ...


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In 1930 two German physicists Walther Bothe and Herbert Becker dicovered that when alpha particles were directed at beryllium some form of ionising radiation was produced, which they thought was gamma rays. Later Irene Joliot-Curie (Marie Curie's daughter) and her husband discovered that this radiation could eject protons from paraffin wax. Chadwick's ...


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Photons mediate the electromagnetic force. Atoms are not necessary for photons to exist. You just need charged particles (electrons, protons, etc) to interact with each other from a distance. There are many ways for a photon to be created and destroyed. Depending upon its wavelength, as it propagates in free space , it could "disappear" and a pair ...


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Probably the best way to think of this, and the way I suspect it works in the minds of people who write exactly this sort of equation in physics textbooks, is that it's an equation describing a nuclear process, rather than a chemical process. The electrons initially bound to the nucleus are irrelevant spectators. A less ambiguous way to describe the ...


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In general for a specific nucleus, if you add, lets say one more proton and one neutron such that the resulting nucleus will stay in the same period as well as add one more electron to the atom, then it will have more effective charge than earlier and will pull the outermost electron more towards itself. However, you need to keep in mind that the angular ...


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First of all the $\beta $ particle emitting from nucleus is too energetic to be captured in atomic orbit to form atom.So it is definitely not the case. Infact thta's why we are sure that it is coming from nucleus not from atomic orbital. More over while writing for radio active decay we are looking for change in the nucleus as it is basically a nuclear ...


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There are several different things that need to be explained / explored here. First - the speed of light in vacuum is independent of frequency / wavelength. The same is not necessarily true for light in any medium other than vacuum: this is why we can see rainbows! Second - not all objects emit "white" light. The emission spectrum of a star depends, among ...


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No color light travels farther or faster than any other light in a vacuum, the television room, water or anywhere else except very special or very large environments. Like you suggest, if the intergalactic space between supernovae absorbs red light differently than blue light, or vice versa, that will affect which we detect here on earth (hopefully an ...



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