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The photon couples to all particles with electric charge or magnetic moment. This includes all of the quarks, the charged leptons $e,\mu,\tau$, and their antiparticles. It also includes particles composed of quarks and charged leptons: the proton and neutron (though the neutron only magnetically), the charged mesons, etc. Many electrically neutral mesons, ...


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If you are interested [let me know], I can explain to you exactly why this occurs (via quark annihilation) by using Feynman diagrams. Sub atomic particles that decay into photons include: As you already know, the leptons (which includes the electron and various neutrinos) are mediated by photons. Mesons: The neutral pion (which can decay into 2 photons), ...


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A specific temperature corresponds to an equilibrium population of available states. At normal temperatures the atoms (and quarks) are too tightly bound to have translational degrees of freedom and therefore have no kinetic energy states. Instead the molecules (in gas) have kinetic states. Atomic movements are captured in vibrational (solid) or rotational ...


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The thermodynamic definition of temperature has been found to be emergent from the underlying particulate nature of matter. It is connected with an average over the kinetic energy of individual particles. Here v is velocity of a molecule, m its mass, k_B the Bolzman constant and T the temperature The kinetic energy requires to have a degree of freedom, ...



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