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One of ideas associated with string theory is the ekpyrotic universe. This starts with brane cosmology i.e. the idea that our universe is a four dimensional brane floating around in the ten dimensional string theory spacetime. There will be many such brane worlds and the ekpyrotic idea is that a collision between two branes would appear just like the Big ...


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If there are eleven dimensions as M-Theory asserts Let us suppose it is true would that mean that the majority of what we are made from exists in the seven other dimensions? Define dimension: In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to ...


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It's a bit strange because the OP basically repeats the same statement twice. First, he says that he understands it and second, he says that he doesn't. But let's try to avoid these detailed surprising aspects of the question and try to explain what's going on, anyway or again. Type I/II strings have spacetime supercharges $Q_a$ that are constructed purely ...


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These branes are being smashed together so that once they are closer than the string length they become indistinguishable from a single brane. These branes have $U(N_c)$ gauge group, and in this space there is a vector. In a generic sense all Lie algebras are like the harmonic oscillator with $a$, $a^\dagger$ and $a^\dagger a$ in the structure of roots and ...


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The reason is clearly given in the famous paper "Vacuum configurations for superstrings" - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0550321385906029 -. Here, I am just copying the introduction of that paper. I cannot tell the reason why with better words. Recently, the discovery [6] of anomaly cancellation in a modified version of d = 10 ...


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Here, $V_0(k_2)$ could have been replaced by $e^{k_2 \alpha_{-1}} e^{-k_2 \alpha_1}$ while the factors from $\alpha_{\pm n}$ for $n\gt 1$ could have been neglected because $\alpha_n$ annihilates everything that appears in the matrix element on the right side from $V_0$ (because it ultimately annihilates $|0\rangle$), and similarly for $\alpha_{-n}$ that ...



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