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Your claim that $p(n)$ is the $\lvert c_n \rvert^2$ from the decomposition $\lvert\psi\rangle = \sum_n c_n \lvert \psi_n \rangle$ is incorrect. In statistical quantum mechanics, we must differentiate between a pure state of the system $\lvert \psi \rangle$ and a mixed state, which is given by a collection of states $\lvert \psi_n\rangle$ and the probability ...


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Only the symmetric stress tensor is physical, since thermodynamics demands a symmetric stress tensor. Since the symmetric stress tensor is unique, your option 2 is the correct one. (Canonical versions may be simpler but need not be physical; cf. the canonical momentum, which is often different from the physical momenetum.) This is completely unrelated to ...


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The Liouville equation for the $N$ particle system, describes the time evolution of the phase space N-particle probability density, which you can also neatly rewrite with the Liouville operator: $f^{N}(t)= e^{-iLt}f^{N}(0).$ Now almost always we're interested in a smaller subset of only $n$ particles, for which then we have to define a reduced phase space ...


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Short answer: The major difficulty lies with the definitions themselves, and none of the possibilities given has a real physical meaning which can be univoquely related to stress in non extensive systems in its conventional mechanical original meaning. The long one: What kind of systems does this apply to? This is not answered by referring to systems with ...


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Liouville's theorem says the accessible volume in phase space does not increase, but it tends to become narrow filaments that "fill up" a much larger volume. If you think of a particle in a reflecting box, you might start it with a known position $\pm 1$ mm in all three axes and a known velocity $\pm 1$ mm/sec in all three axes. This is a phase space ...


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Your logic is actually correct. The discordance between the conservation of phase-space volume according to the Liouville theorem and the Second Law is known as the Ergodic Problem. Heuristic explanations as the one provided by Ross Millikan, or course graining the dynamics for another example, do not hold under closer formal examination, since the math ...


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It works just like every other kind of thermal energy. If a resistor can give out energy to the environment, it can also receive it. For example, if it gives it out by radiating, it can also absorb radiation; if it gives it out by having its fast-moving atoms smash into air molecules, then fast-moving air molecules can also smash into it. When it's in ...


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My personal favorite is "Mathematical Foundations Of Statistical Mechanics" by A. I. Khinchin (a mathematician) and G. Gamow. The content remains mathematically rigorous throughout, but nonetheless very readable. In chapter two, both the Liouville and Birkhoff theorems are derived, followed up by a long discussion on metric decomposability of phase space and ...



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