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Momentum, unlike energy, is a vector quantity. This means that if you have a large number of particle moving at random their momenta tend to cancel out, rather than adding the way a scalar quantity like energy would. If the total momentum of the component parts of your system does not add to 0, then this simply means that your entire system is moving in ...


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Indeed they are conserved quantities so there are canonical ensembles with linear momentum exchange and angular momentum exchange with a reservoir. In fact Gibbs used angular momentum as an example to demonstrate the canonical ensemble's use beyond simply energy (Gibbs 1902, see around eqn 98). Considering linear and angular momentum together, the canonical ...


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I am not sure what the exact system is from the description. However, if you are considering the Hamiltonian of the form $\mathcal{H} \sim J_{ex}\sum \sigma_i \sigma_j$ or something similar, then the corresponding partition function will be $Z \sim \sum e^{-\frac{J_{ex}}{k_B T}\sum \sigma_i \sigma_j}$. It is pretty clear that the physics only depends on the ...


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There was a recent publication addressing exactly this question. From the abstract: Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage.



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