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2

Basically, it has to do with the density of the material as a function of temperature. The density of iron increases as it cools, that is, solid iron is more 'packed tight' than when it is melted. This is understandable, since the kinetic energy of the iron atoms decreases as the temperature drops (ie: the average velocity of the atoms decreases), allowing ...


6

Solid water (ice) is one of the few known solids whose density is lower than that of its liquid form. Yes water is special! (but very much so in its chemical properties too) Due to the crystal structure of the solid phase of water, the molecules arrange themselves in a rigid, ordered fashion and end up being, on average, farther apart from each other (than ...


0

Are quantum fluctuations one way to transform energy to matter? Yes, at least in theory. This is how Hawking Radiation is predicted to work. In this case the gravitational energy of a black hole 'boosts' the energy of a quantum fluctuation to create an actual particle/antiparticle pair, one of which gets sucked into the black hole and one of which ...


2

As well as the other answers, in particular, Anna V's comprehensive Answer, I would like to capture Ben Crowell's comment for permanence in this dicusssion: There's nothing special about nuclear reactions. Chemical reactions also result in a change in mass due to the energy released. It's just that the energy scale for chemical reactions is about $10^6$ ...


2

Wood burning is an example of converting mass into energy. Another is a seed which takes energy from the sun (and water, air etc.) and converts it into matter.


3

There are in fact two more beyond gas. 1) Plasma: the temperature is sufficient to ionize the atoms. 2) Degenerate matter (or Degenerate gas): the temperature is sufficient to fully ionize and the pressure sufficient to compress to the packing limit of the particles (for example: white dwarfs are degenerate as the electrons have reached the required ...


2

One more state - the most extreme plasma that only existed microseconds after the Big Bang or in high energy accelerators like CERN - the quark gluon plasma. That's where temperature is so high the constituent quarks found in nucleons become fluid and flow freely through the mass.


4

Gas is indeed not the highest state of matter, the next step in from it is in-fact plasma: a super-heated gas which acts as a liquid even though it has gone far beyond and vastly different from that form. Super-heating that water to the state of plasma would take a fair bit more heat than a kettle or stovetop could ever produce, but if persistent pressure ...


0

As much as I know there are two more states after gas plasma and Bose-Einstien Condensate


27

Plasma is described as the 4th state of matter, which is what you get if you give so much temperature that the molecules begin to break up and ionize into positively and negatively charged fragments. Another Claim on the title '4th State of matter' is a 'supercritical fluid'. Sometimes people draw phase diagrams with it to show this '4th state of matter'. ...


4

It would start to ionize and them you would get plasma, the 4th state of matter. The "gas" would begin to become an electrical conductor


1

To answer your question, one needs to understand a bit what is the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) formalism. Let us first recall the GL functional: $$F=\int dV\left[g\left|\left(\nabla-\dfrac{2\mathbf{i}e}{\hbar}A\right)\Psi\right|^{2}+a\left(T-T_{c}\right)\left|\Psi\right|^{2}+b\left|\Psi\right|^{4}+\dfrac{\left(\nabla\times A\right)^{2}}{2\mu}\right]$$ with ...



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