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無 'States of matter' is a question of taxonomy, not of reality, and moreover, it's a result of the conditions surrounding the matter, not its internal properties. Certain combinations of properties give us a hint towards calling something 'solid' or 'liquid', but in truth there are no lines, just a continuous spectrum, and under certain conditions, matter ...


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From the Clausius Clapeyron equation, $$ \frac{dP}{dT}_{i \rightarrow j} = \frac{\ell_{i \rightarrow j}}{T(v^{j}-v^{i})} $$ Where $ \ell_{i \rightarrow j} $ is the latent heat of going from phase $i$ to phase $j$, $\, v$ is the specific volume, and all other variables have their common meaning. Taking for example water, this equation gives the change in ...


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It's dangerous because the Leidenfrost effect is only temporary; it only works as long as the temperature of the skin exposed to liquid nitrogen is much higher than the boiling point of liquid nitrogen. Obviously, even if an "insulating" layer of gas is formed, there will still be a strong cooling effect whenever liquid nitrogen is involved. The "safe" ...



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