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2

The upper mass limit for a quark star depends on your assumptions and ranges between 1 and 2 solar masses (cf. this paper (arXiv link) from 2001). It seems to me that the reason for the similarity to neutron stars' mass range is that it both compact objects satisfy the TOV equation,  \frac{dp}{dr}=-\frac{G}{r^2}\left[\rho+\frac{p}{c^2}\right]\left[M+4\pi ...

2

The shapes of constellations (and there are several different depictions of any particular constellation) only depend on how they look at any specific time. Stars in any constellation are not necessarily close to each other in space. For example, the main stars in Ursa Major vary in distance from 58 to 124 light years. The boundaries of constellations are ...

5

The obvious answer is hydrogen and helium plasma but the nuclear fusion can also create heavier elements. Are these heavier elements a significant portion of the core? As said in dmckee's answer, no, the core of the Sun is much too cool (about ~15 000 000 K) to burn any other than hydrogen into helium. The triple-alpha process, which converts helium ...

4

Herein a filler answer until one of our experts gets around to giving us a more detailed picture. The short answer remains "hydrogen and helium", plus what every metalicity the star started with. The reason is that at the temperatures of the sun's core production of the next stable step (carbon) is many orders of magnitude slower than helium production. ...

10

What you are looking for is called the stellar mass function by astronomers. It is the distribution of masses for stars. There is a nice review of the definitions, measurements, and basic theory in Galactic Stellar and Substellar Initial Mass Function, Chabrier 2003, PASP 115 763. It discusses both the initial mass function (IMF) and the present-day mass ...

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