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1

Are there more positive than negative charges released? In general no, and this statement by itself would imply you were asking about whether the sun charges up, not about current. I wrote a detailed answer at http://physics.stackexchange.com/a/253491/59023 that explains why stars remain mostly neutral and that most observations [e.g., Bale et al., ...


-1

The sun is a ball of plasma. It is essentially a group of electrons and nuclei whizzing around. These electrons and nuclei correspond to no net charge. The get flung out into space still in the form of plasma. There is still no net charge. The individual particles have charge but no net charge.


4

This is really a difficult problem, but possibly not for the reason you imagine. The following naif criterion seems at first highly appropriate: take any pair of stars, subtract the center-of-mass motion, compute the kinetic ($T$) and gravitational ($W$) energies, and check whether $T + W < 0$. If so, the pair is bound, otherwise it is not. How can ...


3

I'll add a few more options for getting the ages of stars, beyond the HR diagram technique mentioned in Chris White's answer. If you can get a R=50,000 optical spectrum of a star with decent signal to noise ratio will quite easily give you the temperature (to 100K), surface gravity (to 0.1 dex) and metallicity (to 0.05 dex), plus a host of other elemental ...


3

The surface temperature of the star has no direct bearing on its metal content. Most stars in the immediate vicinity of the Sun have a very similar metal content. What you are talking about is how this metal content affects the observed spectrum of the star. If the star's photosphere is very hot then the metals become ionised and you don't see the (for ...


1

The surface of the Sun, as you can see from the following picture, is not uniform: But it is impossible to see it with your naked eye. You will need a telescope and specialized solar filters (more information here). Notice also that the picture is not showing visible light, but extreme-ultraviolet light. You will need a special telescope for that. Or you ...


4

Short answer, the sun isn't on fire. Flames can flicker with wind or with pockets of fuel that might collect and burn in spurts or bits of water that can steam when the flame touches them, causing movement, or due to small bits of turbulence as the heat expands away from the flame. The visible surface of the sun is much more like a hot iron that has a ...


8

Background Stars are composed of plasmas, which are an ionized gas that exhibit a collective behavior much like a fluid. There are two important aspects of plasmas to keep in mind. The first is that they act like very highly conductive metals in that the electrons can move very freely in order to cancel out any charge imbalance. The consequence is that ...


10

Overall, a star stays more or less neutral. This is true for all stellar objects beside black holes. I am using a simple calculation that can be found in a footnote of https://arxiv.org/abs/1001.3294 on p. 11 chap. 2. Suppose the star has an overall charge of Z times the elementary charge, $Ze$, and we consider the Coulomb repulsion of a test particle, say ...



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