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6

It doesn't matter whether the $b$-quark is highly energetic, it can never decay to a top quark and a $W$-boson if it is on mass shell, by which I mean, $p^2=E^2 - \vec p^2 =m_b^2$. To see this, consider energy-momentum conservation, $$ b^\mu = W^\mu + t^\mu \Rightarrow m_b^2 = M_W^2 + m_t^2 + 2W\cdot t = M_W^2 + m_t^2 + 2 E_t M_W $$ However, since the energy ...


4

Virtual particles are not real It's in the name. You may draw Feynman diagrams where there are internal lines, and we call these internal lines virtual particles. They are not real. You will never detect a virtual particle. They are not really exchanged between the real charged particles. Virtual particles are a just-so stories designed to explain Feynman ...


4

You have noticed already that $$ \mathcal{L}_{mass}\propto \left[g^2(W^1_\mu W_\mu^{1}+W^2_\mu W_\mu^{2})+(gW_\mu^3-g^\prime B_\mu)^2\right] $$ with the kinetic terms for $W^{i}_\mu$ and $B_{\mu}$ canonically normalized. Therefore the neutral linear combination of $W^3_\mu$ and $B_\mu$ that gets mass is proportional to $(gW_\mu^3-g^\prime B_\mu)$ and the ...


4

The history of high energy physics is in the words "high energy" . There are two ways to get it, building higher and higher energy accelerators or studying cosmic rays, which last has answers in another question. Accelerators are of two types, those creating beams of particles that fall on fixed targets, and colliders, having two beams collide. All ...


3

I'd say that there is not a systematic summary of the status of symmetries on particle physics, but if any, it should be spread all over the PDG review. However, I'd like to comment on a few points. So far Lorentz symmetry is exact on all sectors.${}^\dagger$ Scaling (part of the conformal transformations) is broken once an energy scale is introduced in ...


2

As pfnuessel said in his comment: The first thing to look at was the Higgs - there were hints from LEP and Tevatron, but no evidence, so the LHC was designed that the (SM-)Higgs has to be seen, if it exists. And for everything beyond the Higgs - we don't know! There are various theories, e.g. the different flavors of super-symmetry and others, but they all ...


2

No, only some baryons form a decuplet under SU(3) flavor symmetry, specifically those 10 spin 3/2 baryons formed from up, down,and strange quarks,depicted in the following diagram (figure credit Wikipedia baryon article , figure listed as public domain): On the diagram $Q$ is electric charge, $I_3$ is isospin, and $S$ is the strangeness quantum number. ...


1

A pretty exhaustive summary in the context of Standard Model already exists in the following source: ''Dynamics of the Standard Model'' - Donoghue, Golowich, Holstein, Chapter 3 - Symmetries and Anomalies A limited preview can be found here. (Embarrassingly though, the very first page of the chapter is excluded from Google's preview!) But here's the ...


1

There are 5 standard model (SM) multiplets per generation of fermions. The SM gauge group is $\mathcal{G}_\text{SM} = SU(3)_C \times SU(2)_L \times U(1)_Y$. Various multiplets can then be written as $\mathcal{G}_\text{SM} \ni x = (C,T)_{(Y)}$, where $C$ denotes colour multiplet, $T$ weak isospin multiplet and $Y$ hypercharge value. Multiplets (1st ...


1

The hypercharge of a doublet cannot be "deduced". When one builds a gauge theory, the first step is to define the particle content of your theory and to postulate the representation of all particle multiplets. In particular, if the gauge group is abelian, then we have to assign numbers usually called charges. So, I reformulate your question: Why do we ...


1

It is not an assumption; both $0^+$ and $0^-$ were considered as possible Higgs states. The angular distribution of decay products (like in $h\to ZZ$, $h\to WW$, $h\to f\bar{f}$, $h\to \gamma\gamma$ or in Higgstrahlung) is dependent on the parity of the Higgs particle. Alternatively, you can measure the helicities of the outgoing photons (in the ...



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