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In spin liquids, the ordered state is broken by zero-point fluctuations even at $T=0$. Even though it is common for spin liquids to be frustrated, it is not necessarily so. The $S=1$ Heisenberg spin chain (AFM), for example, is a spin liquid without being frustrated. The name spin liquid comes (I believe), from the exponentially decaying correlation (like ...


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Try to look at Introduction to the Replica Theory of Disordered Statistical Systems by V. Dotsenko. In the following, I've written a possible answer to your question: \begin{equation} f=-\lim_{N\rightarrow\infty}\frac{1}{\beta N}\mathbb{E}\left[\ln Z_{J}\right] \end{equation} where: $\mathbb{E}\left[\mathcal{O}\right]=\left(\prod_{\left\{ i,j\right\} ...


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One could interpret the update steps as possible discrete steps in a fictitious time and in that case the transitions represent dynamics on the state space of a Markov chain. As an example, there is the relaxational non-conservative Glauber dynamics and the magnetization conserving Kawasaki dynamics which are used to simulate Ising and related systems. The ...



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