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This is true. If for example you subject Hydrogen gas to a perfectly monochromatic 121.57 nm laser, then all that will happen is that the gas will scatter the light in all directions, glowing without increasing the temperature. Otherwise there are many different phenomena that are involved in the heat transfer of energy by radiation. For example in solids, ...


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try this link. it basically works on the same principal as a prism, but is many times more effective.


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I hope someone with more knowledge will pop into thread, but here is my education. There might be number of ways to measure such low temperatures. One I find fascinating is starting with material, namely Bose-Einstein condensate. Reference is this one: Cooling Bose-Einstein Condensates Below 500 Picokelvin, Leanhardt et al. Science, 12 September 2003. ...


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The temperature is not measured in the sense of using a thermometer. Instead it is calculated from the velocities of the particles in the trap. Temperature is related to the velocity distribution by the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation. Under normal circumstances we are usually starting from a known temperature and calculating the velocity distribution. However ...


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You should use external optics with a monochromator. Outside the setup you should have a lens that focuses collimated the light on to slit A. This is the reason for the converging beams. Note that, for maximum throughout you should choose a focal length focusing lens that matches the numerical aperture of the monochromator. With different wavelengths now ...


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I'm answering for gases, with which I'm much more familiar than solids. The actual strength of absorption line is less important, what matters is the wavelength. That tells you the energy associated with excitation of a particular mode or degree of freedom in the material Each degree of freedom: translation, rotation, vibration or electronic contributes ...



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