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22

To be a little pedantic, nobody has yet done precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen, though the recent success in trapping it at CERN (all over the news this week, paper here) is an early step toward that. It's possible that there are small differences in the spectrum of antihydrogen and hydrogen, though these differences can't be all that large, or they ...


18

The full quantum analysis of the hydrogen atom is a quantum two body problem, however, one of those bodies is extremely massive compared to the other, so that this problem, as a first approximation, is analysed by solving either the first quantised (i.e. for one quantum particle in a classical environment) Schrödinger or Dirac equations for inverse square ...


15

When astronomers started to get spectra of stars and began classifying them, the initial classification was based on the strength of the Balmer absorption lines in the spectra. The Balmer lines are created by electons in hydrogen atoms that are currently in the second energy level (N=2) absorbing energy and jumping up to higher levels. The stars with the ...


12

Good quantum number are associated with operators that commute with the Hamiltonian. They correspond to conseved quantities. Overall angular momentum is conserved, but the portions of it due to orbital motion and due to spins are not themselves conserved. n is 'bad' in that there's no conserved physical quantity related to radial motion. A decently ...


12

Almost all exoplanets observed are near F, G, and K stars. In part, this is because astronomers are looking for earth-like planets, so they look at stars similar to our Sun, but there are also some physical reasons. Sahu et al (2006) have provided some evidence that red dwarfs (class M) are more likely to have planets than other spectral types, though it is ...


12

There's a few ways the temperature can be measured remotely. The easiest way is to measure the amount, and for bonus, spectrum, of the radiated heat. All objects greater than Absolute Zero radiate a certain amount of energy. The wavelength spectrum can be determined by Planck's Law, and the amount of energy by the Stefan-Boltzmann law, both of which are ...


10

Given what we know about planetary formation (Link 1, Link 2, Link 3 and Link 4), and the theories around it, it would probably be a safe bet to say that ALL stars end up having some left over material that might become planets. I think the bigger question is how many of those planetary orbits stay stable enough throughout the life of the star? All these ...


9

In theory, perhaps. It is possible, using multilayer dielectric coatings, to produce a surface which is reflective in very narrow bands (in this case, the Sun's dark lines)and transmissive (or absorptive) elsewhere. In practice, the spectral "blurring" caused by atmospheric transmission/absorption/re-emission effects would make this effect pretty much ...


9

The Aethrioscope (see Wiki page with this name) was invented in 1818 by Sir John Leslie and the basic idea for a pyrometer (see Wiki pahe with this name) was conceived in the late 1700s by Josiah Wedgewood. These were calibrated by comparing observed colour with that of hot metals / clays (as appropriate) of known temperature. The idea was to heat a small ...


8

You've asked a lot of questions there, and I'll try to answer them one by one. First, though, I want to ask what post you're reading about metallicity in the core vs. out here in the 'burbs because I don't think it is correct. Obviously, for example, we exist and we're ~26,000 light-years (half-way out) from the galactic center and we have a fair amount of ...


8

The major tool in investigating the composition of an astronomical body is spectroscopy. This technique makes use of the fact that a body composing certain elements/compounds will shine more brightly(or less) at particular wavelengths. The pattern of 'lines' taken by a spectrograph can then be used to infer the original composition. This technique is used ...


7

Blackbody radiation for a white hot object emits the spectrum from infrared to ultraviolet. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_body Graphite is a decent approximation of a blackbody radiator. So graphite heated to white hot will emit the full spectrum of visible light. Note however, that the spectrum will not be flat. There will be more energy on ...


6

While most measurements in astronomy are better in space, precision spectroscopy can actually do quite well on the ground. One of the best spectrographs (some would say the best) is HARPS, the High-Accuracy Radial Velocity Planetary Searcher used for finding extrasolar planets. As described in its instrument paper (pdf; note that the sole purpose of this ...


6

A galaxy spectrum is a quite complex and complicated topic, and many entire careers are fully devoted to understanding them, so this can only be a simplified answer. It is still quite lengthy, though, so if you're impatient, I've summarised it at the bottom. A blend of starlight of different spectral types makes up the continuum. The light is emitted by ...


6

The "metallicity" of a star simply means how much elements other than hydrogen or helium it contains. In this case, a "metal" means anything that's not on the first row of the periodic table of elements. Thus, a "metal-rich star" is one that contains lots of (for example) carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, etc. The term does not refer to metals in the strict ...


6

EM radiation, including light, is a spectrum of different wavelengths. Spectroscopy is the detailed analysis of a light signal by wavelength. Ordinary color images break up light into 3 channels (red, green, and blue), but spectroscopy is generally concerned with breaking up light into a higher number of bands (e.g. 10, 100, or more), and a spectrometer is ...


6

the physical reason why this is happening is that absorption of a medium is frequency dependent. Mathematical description The most prominent example of a natural description might be the Lambert-Beer law that states that the change of a quantity $q$, $dq/dx$ is related to its value at $x$ multiplied by a scalar factor $\lambda$, which might depend on some ...


6

In this statement $\sigma = 10.2$, the uncertainty in the equivalent width. Overall, the statement means that you have a confidence of 2.2$\sigma$ that the absorption line is present (i.e. the equivalent width is 2.2 times its uncertainty bigger than zero, corresponding to a <5% chance that the absorption dip seen is due to measurement uncertainty). This ...


6

A quick google search for "aurora plasma temperature" brings up several interesting results, which seem fond of reporting temperatures in electron volts. That's entirely sensible, but probably not quite what you want. While we could do some math to convert those measurements to Kelvin, Rocket measurements of plasma densities and temperatures in visual aurora ...


5

Velocity and wavelength shifts are connected by the Doppler effect, with which you may already be familiar. Basically, objects that are approaching appear bluer and those receding appear redder. Now, suppose body of material emits some spectral line and that the particles of that material have line-of-sight velocities that range from $-10^4\text{km.s}^{-1}$ ...


5

There are continuous spectra, emission spectra, and absorption spectra. Dense materials, such as the deeper parts of our sun, have continuous spectra. Hot, low-density gases have emission spectra (a black spectrum with bright lines in it). The continuous spectrum generated deep in our sun passes through the cooler and lower-density outer regions of the sun, ...


5

Just to add to gigacyan's answer, the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian may be written in terms of raising and lowering operators: \begin{eqnarray} \hat{H}\psi&=&-\frac{1}{2m}\frac{\partial^2\psi}{\partial x^2}+\frac{1}{2}m\omega^2x^2\psi\nonumber\\ &=&(a^{\dagger}a+\frac{1}{2})\omega\psi \end{eqnarray} where \begin{equation} ...


5

Just compare the resolution of the two: Prism depending on n, there is no good material n>1.7 (besides diamond) depending on base length if you use a equilateral triangle have to use more than one to overcome this prism absorb light, you have got scattering (stray light) too Now a grating: optimize it for your wavelength choose lines per milimeter ...


5

A spectrometer does something similar to what a prism does: light goes in, and gets split up into a spectrum. If you shine white light through a prism, a rainbow comes out the other side. But not all things give off white light. In fact, each element, when excited gives off a unique set of wavelengths that act like its signature: these are called emission ...


5

The sun's spectrum is very complex, and indeed there are a lot of "lines" both light and dark (emission and absorption) amidst a sea of what looks to be continuous frequencies. Note that the atoms you study in a textbook are idealizations. In a hot object such as the sun, some photons come to us by way of atomic emissions, but the speeds of the atoms that ...


5

You do not state your question clearly But the higher energy state is considered to be unstable and thus the electron will fall back immediately and would again give the wavelength preventing any spectra to be formed. The same doubt is in emission spectra when used to describe various flame colours but the same doubts apply there too. I suppose you are ...


4

There is a lot of confusion on this issue, and indeed plenty of textbooks have got their terminology mixed up. The brief story of the opaqueness of the universe is as follows: In the beginning, everything was a plasma. The photons coupled to the free protons and electrons, unable to travel far before scattering. As the universe expanded and cooled, neutral ...



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