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This article covers the question Radiation is divided into two categories - ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is radiation with sufficient energy to remove electrons from the orbits of atoms resulting in charged particles, and it is this type of radiation that is evaluated for purposes of radiation protection. ...

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Bone remodels in response to stress in order to maintain constant strain energy per bone mass throughout. To do this, it grows more dense in areas experiencing high stress, while resorbing density in areas experiencing low stress. Thus, a vertical position (vertical as defined by the direction of the artificial gravity will be better for some bones that are ...

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time slows in the presence of strong gravitational fields It's not the gravitational field that determines time dilation, it's the gravitational potential. The Newtonian approximation really isn't correct here, but let's use it anyway for insight: The potential falls off like $1/r$ with distance $r$. The field falls off like $1/r^2$. Tidal effects go like ...

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