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1

I think that what you are asking is the position, velocity and acceleration of a space probe relative to the ever changing positions of the components which make up the Solar system? In the article cited below it describes the coordinate system as follows "Calculation of the trajectory of a space probe requires the use of an inertial coordinate system as ...


0

I dont think it's a problem, that the satellite is accelerating. Locally the time will nevertheless run slower. If the camera is directed onto a watch, you would see it ticking more slowly. If the webcam is directed on the outside, you will see the normal speed of happenings, e.g. it would show you the same number of rounds as you have seen by looking at ...


2

Since the traveller is circling Earth, he/she is actually accelerated. So his/her frame of reference is not inertial (if we take that of the beholder to be inertial). The two points of views are then not equivalent, unlike those in the twins paradox. If I'm not mistaken, one may show that the beholder will "see" the traveller be slower, and the traveller ...



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