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In almost every technical field, one of the key goals of an undergraduate degree is to prepare one to work as a professional in that field. Working as a professional physicist pretty much means having a PhD in physics. The key focus of an undergraduate physics degree is to prepare students to enter a graduate school program in physics. Excluding ...


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Most of the "intermediate scale" problems were solved long ago, and are now mostly the domain of engineering: application of physics to real world problems. That leaves the more interesting, "esoteric" stuff as the material at the frontier; this is where research is happening, and that becomes the material that the lecturers (most of whom are researchers) ...


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Your issue is that this interview was not transcribed by a physicist! What he said was "Gauge Symmetry" not "Gate Symmetry". Your googling should work better now, and here is one place to start: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauge_theory


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Though the question is off topic, its a rare opportunity for a young person to connect with more senior physicists, so I'll share my thoughts: There is a vast, beautiful mathematical world waiting for you to discover - you haven't even seen a deep treatment of mechanics yet. It takes a lot of work and a lot of dedication, to grasp, but we're all here ...


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I found this lecture transcript helpful. It seems to have been one of a series given by Richard Feynman. http://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/II_09.html


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There are a couple of books that explain quantum mechanics fairly well with no technical prerequisites. "The Fabric of Reality" by David Deutsch explains a lot about quantum mechanics. See especially chapters 2,9 and 11. "The Beginning of Infinity" by David Deutsch, chapter 11 and 12.


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Anthony Zee just came out with Group Theory in a Nutshell for Physicists - covers most of what a undergrad physics student needs including finite groups and representations, except Young diagrams.



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