Hot answers tagged soft-question
Most of the "intermediate scale" problems were solved long ago, and are now mostly the domain of engineering: application of physics to real world problems. That leaves the more interesting, "esoteric" stuff as the material at the frontier; this is where research is happening, and that becomes the material that the lecturers (most of whom are researchers) ...
In almost every technical field, one of the key goals of an undergraduate degree is to prepare one to work as a professional in that field. Working as a professional physicist pretty much means having a PhD in physics. The key focus of an undergraduate physics degree is to prepare students to enter a graduate school program in physics. Excluding ...
Quantum teleportation is a concept of transferring quantum states of matter. Not teleporting matter itself. To "clone" an object to the destination, you need to have the same material as the object already prepared at the destination. You can teleport the state of the object to the destination (of course, purely talking in theory). Then you may be able to ...
Your issue is that this interview was not transcribed by a physicist! What he said was "Gauge Symmetry" not "Gate Symmetry". Your googling should work better now, and here is one place to start: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauge_theory
Anthony Zee just came out with Group Theory in a Nutshell for Physicists - covers most of what a undergrad physics student needs including finite groups and representations, except Young diagrams.
Though the question is off topic, its a rare opportunity for a young person to connect with more senior physicists, so I'll share my thoughts: There is a vast, beautiful mathematical world waiting for you to discover - you haven't even seen a deep treatment of mechanics yet. It takes a lot of work and a lot of dedication, to grasp, but we're all here ...
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