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I found an answer in the book Monte Carlo simulations in statistical physics - an introduction (by K.Binder, D.W.Hermann), page 35. To determine equilibration we need to run the simulation a few times, let's say $n_{run}$ times. we define the average $<>_T$ as an average after $t$ steps of the simulation: $$<A(t)>_T = \frac{1}{n_{run}} ...


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In kinetic Monte Carlo, the idea is to describe a trajectory as a set of events, at which the system makes a transition from one state ($i$) to another ($j$). To generate such a trajectory, we need to randomly select both the states that are visited and the intervals between them. The time interval $t$ between a pair of events is the time in which nothing ...


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While this may not be an objective answer, I personally like G4Beamline. They have plenty of built in materials and have all the particles in the PDG. Further, it's particularly easy to use and gives a nice graphical output (as well as numerical).


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From the wikipedia article you cited "It is important to note that the timestep involved is a function of the probability that all events j, did not occur." (note they use i in wikipedia but we are using j so I changed the quote to match) This probability is u which can be constructed from the multiple poisson distributions for each individual event ...


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You are making to the following mistakes: Your initial displacement $d_0$ is 5 % of the variation of the respective variable, while it should be orders of magnitude lower. The Lyapunov exponent is defined for the limit of infinitesimal displacements, i.e., $d_0→0$. Your observation time is far too short. You are looking at four oscillations of your ...


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As many comments say, there is not a single and best answer, each one uses a different method. The solution that you found is a good one, but how do you define when the equilibrium has been reached? In order to do that you need check the last values of the simulation (Energy, pressure, etc.), so you choose a set of previous configurations that you'll check: ...


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I believe these attractors you are referring to are generally referred to as eddies in the ocean. These features are similar to the hurricanes, and low and high pressure systems in the atmosphere, and just like in the atmosphere they move around. With monthly mean data (monthly climatology) you can advect particles around in a variety of different ways. ...


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Any finite physical system can be simulated by a universal computer. This includes quantum systems, which could be simulated by a universal quantum computer if we knew how to build one. Quantum mechanics is deterministic in the sense that the state of the whole of physical reality at one time can be worked out from the state at an earlier time given the ...


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Could the universe be accurately simulated with an infinitely powerful computer? First Could and infinitely powerful are not compatible. A system able to simulate / predict accurately anything is quite impossible : one would need a clone universe able to compute faster than the universe runs. Initial values, indistinguishability and uncertainty ...


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The uncertainty principle is often confused with the observer effect. The former says that the certainty in position times the certainty in the momentum is greater than some constant. We think of momentum and position as two different things, but the underlying physical phenomenon may not be. Of course, none of this speaks to whether or not quantum ...


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Your question actually contains many questions, which are all related but not so strictly so that it is possible to give a full answer to it. Is every event in the universe related to each other? There are various ways to answer this question. Straight forwardly, we have observed that there is a finite speed at which information can propagate in our ...


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By event I assume you mean interaction. There is certainly a randomness factor if our current theory of quantum mechanics is correct. The most obvious example is radio-active decay, but most any quantum mechanical interaction will include elements of randomness. As for the question of relatedness of events, the answer depends on what you mean by ...


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The answer to the title question (Is every event in the universe related to each other?) is clearly a no. Some events can't be related to others due to the fact that light has a finite and unsurpassable speed.


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i think PIConGPU is the best choice for simulation of laser plasma interaction especially for large scale plasma. the VLPL code has been written by Prof. Pukhov's group and isn't open source. you have to contact to him or his coworkers to get the code. if you have enough time like two or three years for your simulations, you can write your own code by ...



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