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Due to the exponential dependendence of tunneling probability on barrier height and thickness, it is entirely possible for tunneling to take femtoseconds, or for tunneling to take 100 trillion years. The point is that tunneling can potentially be very fast (femtoseconds), and those devices where tunneling is supposed to happen are designed so that tunneling ...


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The answer suggesting "Art of Electronics" is spot on -- no argument. However, it is also spot on expensive. An alternative is Practical Electronics For Inventors which is now in its 4th edition and an excellent low priced book that allows you to move through the material more quickly. The scope of coverage for "Practical Electronics For Inventors" is ...


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Art of Electronics, now in its 3rd edition by Horowitz and Hill has always been a classic. Comprehensive and easy to read with an emphasis on practice rather than deep theory. I am a professional electronics engineer and I have used it (I transitioned from physics) for decades


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Yes, and it is unavoidable. Let's consider an intrinsic semiconductor for simplicity. If the semiconductor is at the absolute zero of temperature, then all electrons will be in the valence band. At any non-zero temperature there is a chance that some electrons will have been promoted by thermal agitation into the conduction band. These electrons will ...


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What you have here could be described as a subset sum problem. Given $n$ can take any integer value (not including zero), you have the set of squares up to $36$, $S = \{1,4,9,16,25,36\}$ and you wish to find subsets of three which sum to $41$. Looking at the subset sum problem this can not be solved analytically but algorithms can be employed. To do this ...


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There are a lot of books on this topic. Instead of focusing on: \begin{equation} n=n_i \exp\left(-\frac{E_{Fi}-E_F}{k_BT}\right), \end{equation} I would focus on a derivation using: \begin{equation} n=N_C \exp\left(\frac{E_{F}-E_C}{k_BT}\right), \end{equation} where $N_C$ is the electron density of states and $E_C$ is the conduction band edge. In ...


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With the exception of a few materials (e.g. silica) everything forms crystals in the solid phase, but the crystals can be very small and randomly arranged. We call such material polycrystalline. The individual crystallites can be very small, but luckily we only need a very small crystal as a seed. I don't know exactly how the seeds for growing silicon ...



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