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You said "Fermi level is constant throughout the junction" - that's correct. But fermi level is "A" (see top right in the table). So A is constant (you can set it to zero if you like). B is not constant.

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Your confusion arises from the fact that you are confusing scalars and vectors. Scalars, are like numbers, and they have only magnitude. Vectors on the other hand have direction in addition to magnitude. In your question, you mention the wave vector, which, as its name suggests, is a vector. Typically vectors are written in bold or with an arrow over them; ...

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$f(E)$ is the probability that a quantum state of energy $E$ is occupied. There are two quantum states (for two spin states) at each energy. The probability cannot be doubled, since that could then exceed 1. All that happens for a spin $1/2$ particle is that the number of available quantum states is doubled.

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The values of $E_c$ and $E_v$ in the band diagram depend on the point of reference. So yes they can have negative values if you chose your reference that way. Keep in mind that their difference $E_g$ stays constant nonetheless. Electrons are fermions and therefore governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics. That means that they have to comply with the Pauli ...

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So, lets step back a bit. First lets look at avalanche breakdown. Electrons are constantly scattering, off atoms and other electrons, with some average scattering rate under given conditions. In a semiconductor, avalanche breakdown occurs when the field is strong enough that a free conduction electron gains (through accelerating in the field) a threshold ...

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In Solar Cell Device Physics, the author Stephen Fonash makes a distinction between "electrostatic (electric) fields" and "effective fields", and you have stumbled upon an example that needs the distinction. Electrostatic fields arise from a real electric charge density, which would be caused,for example, by uncompensated donor atoms. In your schematic as ...

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