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4

Your second figure is a simplification of the first one, usually in the $ \Gamma $ point, but it could be any other as well. Regarding your questions: There are multiple lines in valence and conduction band because there are several allowed bands or energy eigen states. Technically there is even an infinite number of allowed bands, but usually you would ...


3

That is true indeed. A hole has no physical existence. It is just the absence of an electron that creates the illusion of a positive charge at that point. You can find it in Boylested Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory that it's a theoretical thing.


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Ok, the previous answer by Alchemist is totally reasonable, but I think we could add a bit of "what is real?" into this discussion without getting metaphysical. A hole is a perfectly well-defined mathematical concept, in the same way that an electron is a perfectly well-defined mathematical concept. The mathematical concept of an electron in the theory of ...


2

If you apply a constant voltage to a piece of semiconductor, you will not get light out of it. All that will happen is that the electrons that are already in the conduction band will start drifting in the applied electric field, so you will get conduction and some heating. In order to get effective recombination of electrons and holes (i.e. atoms that lack ...


1

Lets get something out of the way first: The threshold, or turn-on voltage, is not really an intrinsic device property per se. It originates more from a desire by circuit designers to have a rule of thumb about how much a diode has to be forward biased to get it into conduction mode. As such, one takes the inherently non-linear current vs voltage response ...


1

IN ac frequency,the range of 50 to 60hz even though the connected led blinks it cannot be visible to human eye. in above mention that led can with stand in dual polarity but inrush current in ac will affect it. If you slow down the freq then blinking will visible


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Presumably you are referring to semiconductors. A hole physically exists in that it is the absence of an electron. Just like a hole in a piece of paper physically exists. However, if you are asking whether the hole is a particle, then no, it does not physically exist. In a semiconductor, we deal with electron hole pair (EHP) generation. When this happens, ...


1

The I-V characteristics of materials and devices should always be measured at the same thermodynamic conditions, i.e. at the same temperature. Mixing the actual isothermal I-V characteristic with the temperature dependence doesn't lead to any useful data for the purposes of physics (but it is occasionally done in electrical engineering and electronics design ...



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