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The important thing here is that a magnetic dipole, like a permanent magnetic or induced magnetism in ferrous material, produces a nonuniform field. The potential energy of a magnetic dipole $\vec\mu$ in a magnetic field $\vec B$ is $$ U = -\nabla( \vec \mu \cdot \vec B).$$ Most frequently (as in anna v's answer) this is used to explain the torque which ...


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It is an experimental fact that atoms and molecules have magnetic moments. Also elementary particles with spin have magnetic moments as well as protons and neutrons. It is not classical mechanics that will describe the behavior of atoms and molecules, but Quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical theoretical models of magnetism exist, and early on in the ...



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