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"A state of rest" is a relative term. Relative means - measured in comparison to the things around it. When you sit in a train and sip from a cup of coffee, you can do so because the cup is still relative to you even though both of you might be hurtling through the countryside at 200 km/h. For most experiments, objects can be considered "at rest" if they ...


5

What I don't understand is why we have to apply the rule in this specific way? How do I know how the chain rule must be applied? We don't have to. You don't know. Somebody just found out that by using that specific method, the result ended up neat and simple. Nothing is wrong with another method. You get the same thing in another expression. Let's ...


5

Revolving around the sun is equivalent to free fall around the sun, so the revolution allows you not to 'feel' the sun's gravity. The rotation of the earth is something that can be measured: (i) a centrifugal force which is a small offset on gravity, and (ii) causes the coriolis force. Both these are small effects, so can often be ignored for laboratory ...


3

I don't think this is as dumb a question as everyone downvoting you seems to think. The definitions of angular velocity ($\omega$), angular momentum ($L$), and moment of inertia ($I$) ARE defined in order to perfectly mirror Newton's laws. Angular momentum is the analogue of momentum, angular velocity is the analogue of velocity, and moment of inertia is ...


3

If you start with a monatomic gas then the only degrees of freedom available are the three translational degrees of freedom. Each of them absorbs $\tfrac{1}{2}kT$ of energy, so the specific heat (at constant volume) is $\tfrac{3}{2}k$ per atom or $\tfrac{3}{2}R$ per mole. If you move to a diatomic molecule there are two rotational modes as well - only two ...


1

As one of the comments mentions, it is simpler to consider a linear case. Dropping a body of mass $m$ on one moving with mass $M$ and velocity $v$ is essentially considered the instantaneous transformation $M \to M + m$. Momentum must be conserved in the collision, but the mass of the system effectively increases, producing a smaller kinetic energy: $$ ...


1

Energy is conserved, but if you ignore some kinds of energy then it will look like it isn't conserved. You can imagine a really big disk with some radial pointing two by fours attached at the one o'clock, two o'clock etcetera positions then attach springs to each two by four with the spring pointing in the clockwise/counter-clockwise directions. Add a nice ...


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$v = |\vec{\omega}\times\vec{r}|= \omega r$ is always valid for a rigid rotating body. Here, $r$ refers to the distance of any particular point from a chosen axis of rotation, $\omega$, the angular speed of the body about that chosen axis and $v$, the linear speed of that point perpendicular to the radius vector (or the line joining the axis to that ...


1

For pure rolling (no slipping) the ball is rotating about point B (the contact point). Thus A is moving up and a little to the right, and C downwards and a little to the left, whilest point B is at rest. If B was moving up or down it would break the contact, and if it move left or right it would slip. Why? The picture below shows the velocity vectors ...


1

There are 2 kinds of motion here: translational and rotational. The net velocity at any point is calculated by the vector sum of these two velocities. For instance at point B, $v-rw=0$ (pure rolling condition). That's why this point stays at rest.


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"Rest, in physics, refers to an object being stationary relative to a particular frame of reference or another object." - Wikipedia (emphasis mine) While on Earth, the planet is often treated as the default frame of reference. It is not a perfect frame of reference, but for many purposes it is good enough. Since there is no absolute frame of reference, ...



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