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How can we detect Earth's spin? Apparent motion of Sun You will have observed that the sun reappears every 24 hours. There are two common explanations for this. One of them is that the earth rotates with a period of approximately 24 hours - this is the only explanation supported by the scientific evidence. The main alternative had a rather convoluted ...


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Mass is not a function of time, so the only thing inside the integral that needs differentiating is the position. Let me try to make this clearer. The integral over $m$ is really the integral over the volume: $$\int_m r \cdot dm = \int_V r \cdot\rho(r')~ dV$$ Here I deliberately distinguish between $r$, the vector from the origin of the coordinate ...


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Perhaps the least convenient but the most direct is go to the Moon and observe the Earth. The (average) length of day as measured by timing stellar transit to stellar transit, sidereal day, differs by 4 seconds from the length of day defined by timing noon on one day to noon on the next day, solar day. A satellite launched East requires less energy to ...


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The point in which the friction acts is not actually moving, but rather as the object rolls past any given point, a new point of friction takes over. See in the animation below how a point on the circle touches briefly:



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