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45

What luck! Just yesterday I was thinking about this exact same phenomenon whilst watching the film 'The Imitation Game'; the title sequence contained a moving tank, more on that later. When I was little, I used to observe this all the time; not in wheels however, but in caterpillar tracks: Notice how, when a segment of the track touches the ground, it ...


32

It's a classical mechanics effect for sure although a really interesting one. Following links on "Dzhanibekov effect" one gets at Marsden and Ratiu's "Introduction to Mechanics and Symmetry" Chapter 15 Section 15.9 "Rigid Body Stability" treating this with use of the Casimir functions. From remark 1: A rigid body tossed about its middle axis will undergo an ...


19

The rectangular prism is a rigid body. The equations of motion of a rigid body around its center of mass are given by: (Please, see for example: Marsden and Ratiu , (page 6). $$I_1\dot\Omega_1=(I_2-I_3)\Omega_2\Omega_3$$ $$I_2\dot\Omega_2=(I_3-I_1)\Omega_3\Omega_1$$ $$I_3\dot\Omega_3=(I_1-I_2)\Omega_1\Omega_2$$ Where $\Omega_1,_2,_3$ are the angular ...


17

You can always decompose a motion like this into two parts: (1) rolling without slipping and (2) slipping without rolling. What is slipping without rolling? It means the object moves uniformly in one direction along the surface, with no angular velocity about the object's own center of mass. For instance, a box that is pushed along the ground can easily ...


15

The instability inherent in the medium length axis or $\prod_2 $ as shown above is discussed in detail in Marsden and Ratiu, which is where the image is from. The unstable homoclinic orbit that connect the two unstable points have intersting features. Not only are they interesting because of the chaotic solutions via the Poincare-Melnikov method that ...


10

You've duplicated constraints because if any one particle is constrainined in all three dimensions with all the other particles this constrains all the particles. The number of constraints is 3(N - 1). To give an example, take three particles a, b and c. If a is fixed relative to b and is also fixed relative to c, then b and c are fixed relative to each ...


10

One may prove for an arbitrary rigid body (and wrt. to an arbitrary choice of pivotal point for the rigid body) that the three moments of inertia $I_x$, $I_y$, and $I_z$, around the three principal axes (which we will call $x$, $y$, and $z$) satisfy the triangle inequality, $$\tag{1} I_x +I_y ~\geq~ I_z, \qquad I_y +I_z ~\geq~ I_x, \qquad I_z +I_x ~\geq~ ...


10

Consider a point $P$ on the surface of the wheel. If you look at the horizontal velocity of that point in the frame of reference of the wheel (axis stationary), then for a wheel of radius $r$ with angular velocity $\omega$ that point will have horizontal component of velocity $$v_h = r\omega\cos(\omega t)$$ The linear velocity of the wheel $v = \omega r$. ...


9

you wrote: "How can [the velocity of the contact point] be zero when it's in continuous motion?". However, you should keep in mind that motion is relative and therefore your question should be actually read as: "How can the velocity of the contact point be zero relative to the contact surface, when it's in continuous motion relative to its axis of ...


9

You are making a major flaw here. The friction between the 2 blocks is not going to be $10N$. It is going to be something, but we will have to calculate it. Assume the friction force to be $f$ such that the acceleration for both the blocks is same. Now, equations for $m_2$ and $m_1$ separately are: $$F-f = m_2*a = 3a$$ $$f = m_1*a = 5a$$ Solving both ...


8

I think a reasonable first approximation can be made like this: choose an arbitrary orientation for the die, and figure out, if the die were released in that orientation with its lowermost point resting on a surface, which side would it fall on? That can be easily calculated; you just draw a line going straight down from the center of mass, and whichever ...


8

Here's a straightforward but somewhat computational way. There are two steps. (1) Show how to define the angular velocity vector in terms of rotation matrices. (2) Write a general rotation in terms of Euler angles. (3) Combine (1) and (2) to get an expression for the angular velocity vector in terms of Euler angles. Step 1. Recall that if $\mathbf x(t)$ is ...


6

Every rigid body has 3 translational dof. In addition, there are 0, 2, or 3 rotational dof, depending on the geometry, giving a total of 3, 5, or 6 dof. A spherically symmetric rigid body has no rotational dof. A rigid body with rotational symmetry around an axis has 2 rotational dof, namely two angles for orienting the symmetry axis along a direction. ...


6

You're correct that there is no such thing as a rigid body in reality. Any time a force is applied to an object at one point (such as a boulder being placed on one end of the see-saw), it only immediately applies to the molecules that it is touching. The displacement of those molecules propagates to the rest of the object as a "deformation wave," which is ...


6

Building up from the ground is essentially impossible. One reason is stability, as John Rennie points out in his answer, but a far more fundamental reason* has to do with compressive strength. When a space elevator is completed, the cable is under a lot of tension. However, if you build up from the ground then while you're building it it's under compression ...


6

The moment of inertia is a rank 2 tensor not a scalar. You'll commonly see it written as a scalar, but this is because by choosing your axes to line up with the principal axes of the object the matrix representing the moment of inertia can be diagonalised: $$ {\bf I} = \left( \begin{matrix} I_{00} & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & I_{11} & 0 \\ 0 & 0 ...


6

The internal forces come in equal-and-opposite pairs (Newton's 3rd), and therefore result in no net force on the object. If you did take the vector sum of all of them, they would just cancel out. Including them therefore doesn't change the final expression. There is no need for idealization - just the acceptance of classical mechanics. Note that this is ...


5

For longitudinal waves, the effect moves with the speed of sound inside the matter which is equal to $$c=\sqrt{\frac{E}{\rho}}$$ where $E$ is the modulus of elasticity and $\rho$ is the mass density. For steel this is like $5000\;{\rm m/s}$. For beam transverse waves, it depends on which harmonic is excited and how many wavelengths fit in the length of the ...


5

I assume you know about rotation matrices, and so for a sequence rotations about Z-X-Z with angles $\phi$, $\theta$ and $\psi$ repsectively you have $$ \vec{\omega} = \dot{\phi} \hat{z} + T_1 \left( \dot{\theta} \hat{x} + T_2 \left( \dot{\psi} \hat{z} \right) \right) $$ The logic here is apply a local spin of $\dot{\phi}$, $\dot{\theta}$ and $\dot{\psi}$ ...


5

This is an interesting paradox! I suggest resolving it in the following way: First, note that the coefficient of friction between the two blocks allows friction "up to 30N" to occur - but if the two blocks are not moving relative to each other, the friction will be "whatever it is". Second, look at the force balance on the top block. We have the force of ...


5

In the example cited in the question, the center of mass of the barbell rotates about the pivot axis. Some external force needs to be applied to the barbell to make that happen. Assuming a constant angular velocity, this force is directed radially inward from the center of mass toward the axis. From the perspective of a point $P$ on the pivot axis but some ...


4

You can look at tensor as a data file. The most important thing is not to visualize it but to understand what each element of this file means, and how to transform this file from one system (system of coordinates) to another. Visualization here can be done in two steps: Visualizing data - vector fields, scalar fields, oriented volume fields and sooo on. ...


4

It will not rotate around A, since the centrifugal forces will make the body rotate about its center of mass. You can move the torque, it is not fixed to a given point.


4

The above answers are all good but i want to give another example which really helped me with understanding what does it mean that the point of contact has a velocity of zero. Think of the 'spinning circular object' not as a ball, but instead think of it as a star polygon with an infinite amount of edges, for the sake of the example a very large number will ...


4

What is done here and maybe not stated so clearly is that the rate of change of angular momentum vector is broken up in two parts. Change in angular momentum due to angular acceleration $I\dot{\vec{\omega}}$ Change in angular momentum due to inertia tensor rotation $\vec{\omega}\times I \vec{\omega}$ All this is explained in terms of a changing vector ...


4

If you have the same mass, then the fluted beam will be more rigid because the second moment of area is larger - in the same way that an $\mathrm{I}$ beam is more rigid than a circular rod of the same mass. In the case of a gun barrel, lighter weight helps in a number of ways - portability, ability to hold the gun still as you aim... but making it lighter ...


4

There are a few ways to justify it. First, you could look at the motion of the object as it rotates. In 2D, it turns out that all such motion can be decomposed into motion of the CM, and rotation about the CM. Therefore, rotating around the CM itself is the only way to guarantee the CM doesn't move, and hence is the least energetically costly. Another way ...


4

Everything you have derived is correct. The reason for your perceived paradox is, I believe, a confusion between force and power. The same force can produce more power if it is being exerted at a greater velocity. When you exert a force at a radius r from the CM, the point of application of the force will accelerate more quickly than the CM, allowing the ...



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