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TL;DR The integral in the Clausius inequality is negative the portion of the entropy change of the reservoirs that is due to energy exchange via heating with the system, i.e. $$0 \geq \oint \frac{\delta Q_{\text{sys}}}{T_{\textrm{res}}} = - \Delta S_{\text{res due to heat exchange with sys}}.$$ (I use the word "portion" because the reservoirs are allowed ...


Squeezing the wavefunction means confining it to a smaller space. It takes more energy to confine something within a small space than within a big one. 2, 3: These are consequences of the quantum adiabatic theorem: if you take a system in state $n$ of some system, and act on the system sufficiently slowly, it ends up still in state $n$ of the new system. ...

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