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Answering your questions (1) As long as the irreversibility arises solely as a consequence of the fact that the system and the enviornment are at different temperatures, the methods outlined below work. You can calculate $\Delta S_{\textrm{sys}}$ as normal, and calculating $\Delta S_{\textrm{env}}$ is also straight-forward if we treat its temperature as ...


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The other answers showed that the energy of the final system is greater than the energy of the initial system, because you are heating the gas. Here's another way to see this: In the first step, you remove the weight at height $h_1$. In the second step you replace it at a higher height, $h_2$. In between these steps you need to bring the weight up from ...


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A process is something that goes on, has duration. A change has no necessary relation to time. It is a statement of difference between the initial and the final state of the process.


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This is simply about words. A process can cause a change. For example: A (reversible) adiabatic process can cause a (reversible) temperature change.


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Your mistake is that by "state" you mean following: particle either in section A or section B. In reality what you use for computing entropy is number of ways for particle to be in some point of phase space, that is having particle coordinate and impulse (all 3D). But you can omit these details. Consider box with single particle and 2 sections divided by ...


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I once read of a science fiction scenario where on a planet the distance from a specific center was time. Life in that format progressed in height from the center, grew contours of certain height and became flat at death. The consciousness of those entities had time defined by their changes but humans just saw a completed contoured landscape unchanging in ...


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This is an important and interesting question. It is a tough question, too. It is as simple as it is powerful. I watched the video, but could not get much, to answer this question. It is easier to answer the question if we invoke the second law. However, we shall answer the question using the first law alone. To make things simpler, we assume closed system ...



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