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A quote from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetry_protected_topological_order : The SPT order (for both frermionic and bosonic systems) has the following defining properties: Distinct SPT states with a given symmetry cannot be smoothly deformed into each other without a phase transition, if the deformation preserves the symmetry. However, they all can ...


2

The Magnification is a combination of all of the focal lengths of the picture you have shown above. A real image is created by the objective and tube lens. This creates an image of what you have at the object plane that is magnified by: $M = \frac {f_{tube lens}}{f_{objective}}$ So, if you were to measure the size of the image, it would be M times ...


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Yes, this is a known problem in the condensed matter community. There are two different definitions of short range entangled (SRE) states. The key difference is whether the fermion symmetry protected topological (SPT) state belongs to the SRE state. Strictly speaking, the fermion state is not SRE, because fermion statistics is already a phenomenon of long ...



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