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I'm not convinced that variations in thickness are the cause. Variations in gloss (areas of specular reflection and areas of diffuse reflection) seem more likely: the "distribution requirements" are the same (in both cases the "defect" has to repeat at about equal distances), but the "thickness" hypothesis also requires that the curvature of the sections ...


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I work with mirrors that reflect 99% of the laser wavelength; even higher rates are common for the mirrors used inside the laser cavity, though some method must be provided for the laser beam/pulse to escape, for example, by having the exit mirror at 90%. The relative reflectivity of the cavity mirrors determines the average number of round trips for the ...


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When light goes from one medium to another some is reflected. You get a virtual upright image formed by reflection off the near surface of the glass and an inverted real image formed by reflection off the back surface.


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Perhaps your first question is answered with the following diagram where the displacement of the incident (red) plus the displacement of the reflected (red) must equal the displacement of the transmitted (black)? For your second question the answer is that the vertical acceleration of the rope which is proportional to the vertical component of the tension ...


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I have a site which also explains this phenomenon clearly here. In short here you would find that when an unpolarised light hit at the interface of the two medium the reflected light will be generated such that only that component of electric field is oscillating, which is perpendicular to the direction from point of incidence to the point of observation ...


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The refraction angle will be different for different materials provided these materials have a different index of refraction. Reversely, by measuring the angle you can determine the index of refraction of the material. You can look up Snell's law.


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Let us dive into the light clock thought experiment, Special relativity is based on two postulates, There is no such thing as absolute motion. Phrased another way, all laws of physics should be invariant under changes in inertial frame. The speed of light is measured to be the same value in all inertial reference frames. Let's say you are on the train ...


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That's precisely why a single sharp image is formed. Extend all three reflected rays back below the surface to see where the light seems to come from. If your drawing is precise enough, you'll find that they intersect at a single point, which is precisely the mirror image of the object. The point of specular reflection is that the light seems to come from ...


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The key thing is that the surface have facets. That is, it has to have smooth flat parts that can reflect light like a mirror. If the surface is just amorphous then the scattering will tend to be too disorganized to see the polarization. I have seen polarized light coming off quite surprising surfaces. A manhole cover for example. It had been polished fairly ...


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In the classical theory of reflection (and refraction) of electromagnetic waves, there are equations which describe the reflection of light in two specific orientations. They are known as the Fresnel equations. However, the polarizations of light lie in a 2D vector space, so as long as you decompose any incoming wave of light into the two linearly ...



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