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Amplitude coefficients are complex. The reflection and transmission coefficients must account for both amplitude change and phase change. In order to account for both of these, complex coefficients are required. These are the most general, and are needed for a complete description. In some special (and simple) cases, the phase shift is $0^\circ$ or ...


3

It is theoretically predicted that superconducting layers might be able to act as reflectors through the so called Heisenberg-Coulomb effect. Out of these, you could of course form a cavity able to contain a gravitational wave in principle. This effect has, to my knowledge, not yet been experimentally tested, although several tests have been proposed, see, ...


2

When your book says energy it should say radiant intensity. I didn't read Lambert's Photometria myself, but multiple sources say that this is how Lambert defined his law. A lambertian surface follows Lambert's cosine law, so for this surface we have: $$I_\theta=I_n \cos\theta$$ Radiance's definition can be written as: $$L=\frac{\partial I}{\partial ...


1

If the bottle and liquid are made of dielectric material, then the interfaces between different mediums reflect light, they don't absorb it (i.e. dissipate it as heat in the glass). This is probably a good approximation for your bottle. As a first approximation, once you have worked out your incidence angles with Snell's laww, you need to use the Fresnel ...


1

There are several ways to approach this problem. If we can estimate the power density achieved in $W/m^2$, then the temperature that can be reached follows from the Stefan-Boltzmann law. First method: 1) Take the total power collected, and see the size it got focused down to. You state the area of the mirror array is 0.6 m$^2$ (roughly), and with power ...


1

The main question is how to contain the gravitational wave, and also how to make a cavity large enough to contain the gravitational wave. Also, reflecting the gravitational wave would be a big problem. So, all in all, no.



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