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The so-called TNT equivalent of a nuclear weapon is an unambiguous way of quantifying how much energy is released by the nuclear weapon. There's nothing 'wrong' about it. The only caveat is that the damage caused by, say, Little Boy versus 15 kilotons of TNT would not be identical despite having an equivalent yield (for various practical reasons). ...


3

During proton therapy, most of the damage is actually done in the last few mm before the beam stops - at the point called the Bragg Peak Yes, the penetration distance is largely determined by the energy above a few MeV; as the particle slows down, it starts to dump more energy per unit length. Quoting from "The physics of protons for patient treatment" (...


3

The very flexibility that you mention in your post is a bit of a problem in an experimental context. In order to understand the signal that a Cf-Be calibration source would generate in your detector and tease useful information out of it, you're going to have to model all three channels that generate neutrons and the gammas that escape the source. This means ...


1

Yes, there is a direct quantum mechanical connection between absorption and emission through something called the Einstein coefficients. See https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_coefficients If a material has zero probability of making an absorptive radiative transition between quantum state 1 and quantum state 2 (where state 2 has the higher energy), ...



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