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The observable effects of the gluon field are in the nuclear binding energy curve. The spill over gluon field is what gives the strong nuclear force the attraction that binds protons and neutrons into nuclei. We use this in our every day life through the electricity provided by fission reactions, and shall be using it in the future through fusion reactors. ...

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I suggest the following link Most Particles Decay — Yet Some Don’t! as a complement to the response above.

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It turns into kinetic energy a la $E = mc^2$. When a particle decays into a lighter particle, that lighter particle is usually traveling much faster than its parent particle was. So, for instance, at the LHC they'll catch particles that come out of a decay, add up their total energy (counting rest mass and kinetic energy), and use that to determine the mass ...

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In order to create a top quark pair you need at least an energy of $2 m_t$. At Tevatron, the energy available is about 1 TeV per beam, where beam1 is a proton beam and beam2 an anti-proton beam. For simplicity, let's pick-up a parton with an energy $m_t = 173$ GeV from a proton and another parton with $E=m_t$ from the anti-proton. The ratio of the energy ...

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Color charge in the sense of "being blue, red, green" is not a quantum mechanical observable because the $\mathrm{SU}(3)$ gauge transformations mix the colors. This means it is meaningless to say "We have a blue particle", because we can perform a gauge transformation and then we "have a red particle". Since physical descriptions related by gauge ...

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The Universe is indeed electrically neutral at the cosmological length scales which means that the total charge of the positively charged particles is equal to (minus) the total charge of the negatively charged particles. However, one must be more careful what these particles are. Electrons and protons are two dominant charged particle species. However, ...

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I can think some speculative or unorthodox answers, and sure others can do, so please allow me to mark this answer as Community Wiki: three generations make a nice number of degrees of freedom for a GUT model. Assuming that the neutrinos have companions of the other chirality, one generation has 36 degrees of freedom. With this, the MSSM happens to have ...

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The existense of the quarks suppresses the gluon fluctuations creating the flux-tubes. But yeah, it requires energy to separate the quarks with the flux tubes, that's why when they are sufficiently separated the energy is used to create the quark-anti quark pair called meson. And you probably mentioned The "true" vacuum because of the suppression of the flux ...

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