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6

I don't think that there would be any more diagrams. Having a total derivative term in the Lagrangian leads to derivative interaction vertex, which after symmetrising gives you something like \begin{equation} ig \sum_i p_i \ , \end{equation} where $g$ is some coupling and $p_i$ the momenta of the particles. This vertex, however, vanishes due to momentum ...


3

Let us consider a real, scalar field theory for simplicity (and metric signature $+ - - -$). In the free theory, one can use the mode expansions of the field $\phi(x)$ and its canonical conjugate momentum $\pi(x)$ to derive the following expressions for the creation and annihilation operators: $$ a(p)=i\int d^3x\ ...


3

The neutron is not a fundamental particle. It carries no electric charge, yet it can interact with photons as its components - the quarks - carry electric charge and thus couple to photons. Macroscopically/classical, these interactions cancel out since its net charge is zero, but quantumly, there is a very big difference between objects with charged ...


2

In the second approach, you do have the option to treat the short distance physics in a variety of ways. Choosing point interactions will give you some particular values for $ \lambda _{ bare}$ and some particular rules about how to calculate $\delta \lambda $, and if you choose a different "UV completion" you will get a different value and a different rule. ...


2

First, the obvious explanation for the sign is that if $J$ has a minus sign in (1), then there should be a minus sign in (4). For some reason your $G$ turned into $\phi_i$. Assuming that they are the same thing, then I'm not sure I understand your problem. We didn't use the homogeneous KG equation to get the delta function; we used the inhomogeneous one, ...


2

The only naturally occurring symmetry breaking radiation of this kind is the CMB. Unless you are talking about charged particles of more than approx. 1e19eV energy (in the CMB rest system), the effects are negligible, as far as I know. For those ultrahigh energy particles, however, this so called Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit (GZK limit) forms a cosmic fog ...


1

The gravitational Chern-Simons action is topological, yes. The gauge connection encodes the field of gravity and since it is being integrated over, the result does not depend on a metric. (In the expressions you write maybe the vielbein contribution is missing? Or maybe you mean to have absorbed it in the notation.) Notice that it's just the usual ...


1

In the standard model the mass for the quarks and other elementary particles comes from from the Higgs mechanism. In the case of the quarks, the masses given in the table of the link are calculated using convoluted theoretical models and data input from scattering experiments.4 At the moment chiral symmetry breaking does not contribute to the quark masses ...


1

A wavefunction is (typically understood to be) a complex valued function on configuration space; a wave function assigns a complex number (probability amplitude) to each point in configuration space. For a system of $N$ particles, the system's wavefunction is $3N$ dimensional. A quantum field, on the other hand, is an operator valued function on physical ...



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