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(I henceforth assume $c= \hbar=1$.) It is forbidden by the four-momentum conservation law. Put yourself in the centre of mass reference frame of the couple of massive particles (electron and positron). There $P_{e\overline{e}} = (2E,\vec{0})$ with $E\geq m_e>0$. Just because four momentum is conserved, this four-momentum must be the same as the one of the ...


6

The advantage of unitary gauge is that it completely removes unphysical fields, while adding additional degrees of freedom to the gauge bosons, which consequently become massive. This gauge works well for tree-level calculations, but complications arise when considering loops: The propagators of gauge fields and ghosts (which are needed to impose the ...


2

Let us start with a simple analogy that helps grasping the concept. Say, we need to calculate a electric field of a charged cylinder. What is the first thing you do? You choose your $z$-axis along the axis of the cylinder. Why won't you choose your axes differently, like pointing whatever they want? Well, you could, but that will make the problem ...


2

There is the (non-genetal) relation between the free energy of interacting of two currents $J^{a}, J^{b}$ and the propagator: $$ U = -\frac{1}{2} \int d^{4}xd^{4}y J^{a}(x) D_{ab}(x - y)J^{b}(y). $$ It's not general, but it realizes the simple example which can help you to understand how to get the expression for force. The structure of field which causes ...


2

The classical Coulomb potential can be recovered in the non-relativistic limit of the tree-level Feynman diagram between two charged particles. Applying the Born approximation to QM scattering, we find that the scattering amplitude for a process with interaction potential $V(x)$ is $$\mathcal{A}(\lvert p \rangle \to \lvert p'\rangle) - 1 = 2\pi \delta(E_p ...


1

The kinetic term $$\mathcal{L}_\text{fermion} = i\overline{\psi}\gamma^\mu \partial_\mu \psi$$ changes too, by precisely the right quantity to cancel the change in the interaction term. Thus, the total Lagrangian is invariant, and this is what matters.


1

As @RobinEkman mentioned, the kinetic term changes as well. This can be easily computed \begin{equation} \begin{split} {\cal L}_D = i {\bar \psi} \gamma^\mu \partial_\mu \psi &\to i {\bar \psi} e^{- i \alpha} \gamma^\mu \partial_\mu \left( e^{i \alpha} \psi \right) = i {\bar \psi} \gamma^\mu \partial_\mu \psi - \partial_\mu \alpha ( {\bar \psi} ...



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