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A comment about coherence in general I find the definition of coherence as some sort of "unrelated phase" problematic for a couple of reasons: This formulation somewhat implies that coherence is discrete, i.e. there is incoherent and coherent. Of course that is not true, you can have a continuum partially coherent states. But what quantity are you going ...


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In the quantum mechanical description of any physical system, including a quantum field or a collection of interacting quantum fields, there is always one state vector – one collection of numbers (probability amplitudes) that generalizes what is referred to as the "wave function" in quantum mechanics of particles. In quantum field theory, a better name is a ...


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But I don't understand the mechanism of the force creation But the concept of electric charge and electric field is, by definition, the mechanism of the force creation - that humans have invented to model that which has been observed. Never forget that the observed is the metaphysically given. It is up to us, as beings possessing a rational faculty, ...


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According to the rules of qft there are virtual photons in the vacuüm. No, according to QFT the vacuum is static, in the sense that $P^\mu|\Omega\rangle=0$. Or put it another way, The vacuum at a time $t$ is exactly the same vacuum at a time $t+\Delta t$ for any $\Delta t$. This means that the picture of particles constantly appearing and disappearing ...


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We can obtain Coulomb's law in the non-relativistic limit of the tree-level QED interaction, cf. this question. The Biot-Savart law is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, cf. this question. And Coulomb's law together with special relativity is sufficient to derive Maxwell's equation, cf. this question. So, altogether, yes, we might say that we can derive ...


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That's a naïve point of view; however there is a rigorous construction of "wavefunctionals". It is a point of view initiated by Segal and then continued by Nelson and called the (free) Markoff field. It is rigorously understood for free fields, and in some special case also for interacting ones. The idea is related to the fact that it is possible to link ...


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You measure the time it takes to go from one place to another. Just like you would with a car, only you use particle detectors. (For charged particles of known mass and speed less than about 99% of the speed of light you can also measure the relationship between their energy and momentum, but that doesn't apply to neutrinos.) The speed of light is about ...


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The calculation you are referring to is for the current induced by a fixed background electromagnetic field in two-dimensional massless QED. Having a background field means quantising the usual fermionic action $$ \bar{\psi}(iD\!\!\!/)\psi $$ with $D_\mu=\partial_\mu + i e A_\mu(x)+i e B_\mu(x)$, where $A_{\mu}(x)$ is a fixed, classical gauge field ...


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What are photons? Photons get emitted every time when a body has a temperature higher 0 Kelvin (the absolute zero temperature). All bodies, surrounding us (except black holes) at any time radiate. They emit radiation into the surrounding as well as the receive radiation from the surrounding. Max Planck was the physicist who found out that this radiation has ...


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The Lagrangian for Dirac's equation is $$ \mathcal L=-mc^2\psi^2+\cdots \tag{1} $$ As we know that $H\sim\mathrm d^3\boldsymbol x\ \mathcal L$ has units of energy, we conclude that $$ \psi^2\sim x^{-3}\tag{2} $$ and therefore $\psi$ has units of $[\mathrm{length}]^{-3/2}$. If you use a different convention for $\mathcal L$ instead of $(1)$ you'll get a ...


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I will address: My question - Does not photon, which is supposed to be quantum of electro-magnetic field, interact with an electron "electromagnetically"? A photon and an electron are elementary particles, quantum mecanical entities. Probabilities of interaction in quantum mechanics are calculated from the wave functions of the system in QED, using ...


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It comes about by assuming that the wavelength ($\sim k^{-1}$) is much larger than the typical atomic length scales ($r$).



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