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0

He's relying on isospin symmetry. The integrals you exhibit are for the proton, but the the form factors in the ratio are proton in the denominator and neutron in the numerator. The claim is that the up-distribution of the proton is a good proxy for the down-distribution of the neutron and vice versa, and that the sea distributions are identical. That ...

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The connection with current expectations and current-current correlations is loose only. There is no comprehensive survey article; key papers are by Goldin and coworkers. http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jmp/12/3/10.1063/1.1665610 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jmp/22/8/10.1063/1.525110 You can use scholar.google.com to find ...

22

This is covered by a few existing answers (see for example About free quarks and confinement) though surprisingly it doesn't appear that anyone has asked this exact question before. Anyhow, the answer is that the colour force is mediated by particles called gluons just as the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. The difference is that while photons ...

8

Force is a classical concept. Even classically not all forces decrease with distance, as the forces acting on a spring show, which increase with distance. I do not see the connection with the three dimensions of space and the functional form of the potential of a force. The strong force is modeled with the exchange of gluons which are depicted in Feynman ...

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I found the answer to my question in this publication: http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0309075v2.pdf The mass formula is given by $$m = \sqrt{\frac{2m_1m_2}{\alpha}J+(m_1^2 + m_2^2)},$$ where $m_1$ and $m_2$ are the masses of the partons, $\alpha$ is the fine structure constant and $J$ is the angular momentum of the hadron.

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You're asking about the significance of the discovery of the Pentaquark. It would shed light on some mysteries surrounding the nuclear force, to begin with. It could perhaps lead to a change in what we understand about Neutron stars, too. In terms of "some theory it supports or something like that", generally the stuff we already think still makes sense. ...

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