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The central charge of atoms also strongly influences it's chemical actions. For example, ionization energies change with both the number of central positives. With regards to quantum mechanics, the Born - Oppenheimer approximation is used for calculating bond lengths, and depends on both the state of the nucleus as well as the state of the electron cloud, ...


Electron configuration means the distribution of electrons in atomic (or molecular) orbitals. Here you seem to have an idea dealing with angular and spin momenta. Hund's rule can tell us what the lowest electron configuration is and firstly originated from the way to choose a state of lowest interaction between total momentum and entire atomic environment ...


By 'electron configuration' can be understood the way an atom's electrons are arranged in atomic orbitals, in accordance with Pauli's Exclusion Principle, the Aufbau Principle and Hund's Rule, of the lowest possible total energy (known as the Ground State). For carbon (Z=6), six electron have to be placed in the correct atomic orbitals. The first 2 occupy ...


Not even remotely possible. You would have to overcome the Strong Nuclear Force to rip a nucleus apart, and that is the strongest of all the fundamental forces. Here's a graphic from this site:

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