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This is well explained on the basis of sub shell electronic configuration. But first, let's look it by the concept of shells alone. See in the example of calcium, it has $20$ electrons. Of course the outermost shell can accommodate $18$ electrons. If it goes like $2,8,10$ then the outermost shell contains 10 electrons. The stable state is either having an ...


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As the other answer has pointed out the electron is a quantum mechanical entity as well as the proton, obeying the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, HUP: This does not mean that your question: How long does it take for an electron to be described in a quantum state? supposing it means the transition time from a free electron to a bound one, is ...



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