New answers tagged proton
The charge of a particle is completely independent of its mass. If you had some technique (and there isn't one) to just remove charge but keep the proton exactly the same it would not change its mass. Particle masses arise from a combination of the mass of its constituents and their interactions (the potential energy of particle interactions give it mass ...
I will answer the question in the title: What happens to the electron companions of cosmic ray protons? They leave them behind in the plasma on which they originated. Have a look Plasma is the fourth state of matter, it is composed of ions and electrons, and is continually ejected by the sun. Any positive excess on the upper atmosphere will be ...
Cosmic rays at the highest energies are likely protons or iron nuclei or something in between (Auger and High-Res continue to disagree on this point), but as AMS-02 has pointed out, there are lots of electrons and positrons. Since the energy of the incoming cosmic rays is irrelevant we have to consider them at all energies, including very low energies, at ...
Consider a neutron star. It's a gravitationally bound atomic nucleus. Contrary to exotic particle hopes, a very stiff equation of state (J0348+0432, 2.04 solar masses, AP4 model) suggests nothing other than neutrons, protons plus electrons. That nucleus has density, about 2.2×10^14 g/cm^3. Perhaps WFF1 is a better equation of state.
D=m/v, (with rounded numbers) Sphere for volume= (4/3)(pi)(radius^3) r (cm)=(1.0x10^-13)cm mass (g)= (1.7x10^-24) =(1.7x10^-24)/((4/3)pi(1.0x10^-13)^3) =(1.7x10^-24)/(4.1887x10^39) = 4.0585x10^14
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