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Note that the combined rest masses of the quarks (~10 MeV/$c^2$) account for about 1% of the proton and neutron mass (~938 MeV/$c^2$), the main contribution to the mass are the gluons from the Strong Force. Since the composition of the proton and neutron are different, so is the force that binds them.

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If I understand your questions correctly: Yes, it can be somehow the other way around. But we do "know": There are two sort of particles in here, one of them has a certain charge and is light, the other has the opposite charge and is heavy. You can then claim that the heavy ones rather stay in place and the light ones sprint around and make up the current. ...

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Generally it is said that current is due to the flow of electrons; how can we make this claim? If the wire is in a magnetic field the moving charges will move in a circle based on the magnetic force. This happens until enough charge imbalance develops on the edges of the wire to produce an equal and opposite electric force. But measuring the voltage ...

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From classical models, the electron and a proton revolve around their mutual center of mass, which approximately lies on the proton itself, because the proton has a significantly higher mass than the electron. This is why electrons revolve "around" the proton, and hence form the outer layer of an atom. Quantum mechanically, electrons could never form a ...

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The range of attraction between two protons is short. So if you have a large number of protons only the long range repulsive Coulomb force will dominate and the nucleus will not be stable. So you need neutrons which are free from this repulsive force.

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I'm sure this has been answered elsewhere on the site, so I won't provide too much detail. The nucleus is held together by the strong nuclear force between nucleons (protons and neutrons). The force is short range and effectively only acts between adjacent nucleons. At the same time, the Coulomb repulsion between protons acts over a long range - so that all ...

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