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The radiation belts are thought to be produced through multiple processes. One of the original leading ideas was the concept of radial diffusion. Other ideas included energization due to low frequency waves. I have done work in this field, but only with a higher frequency electromagnetic wave called whistler mode waves. I will focus on these in my ...


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Plasma is when the electrons are "freed" from their host atoms for a short time, due to high temperatures. Fire is plasma, it responds to electric fields. Lightning is also plasma. When a column of electrons flows from sky to ground, the air that it passes through lights up with energy. What we see as lightning is actually the air where the electrons are at, ...


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The motivation for pursuing fusion is clear, but there are currently several main physics and engineering challenges: Confinement time: An operational reactor requires a long energy confinement time, $\tau_E$. An empirical scaling law for confinement time has been found to depend on the size of the tokamak as $\tau_E \propto R^{2.04} a^{1.04}$, where $R$ ...


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Well, I am not sure if your statements are entirely accurate because the fast mode can approach the lower hybrid resonance. In fact, in this regime, it becomes effectively indistinguishable from an electrostatic whistler mode. At low frequency and oblique angles, the fast (or magnetosonic) modes are right-hand polarized (with respect to $\mathbf{B}_{o}$) ...


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First Question Well, the first thing is that $J$ = $\sigma \ E$ happens to be an approximation (fun side note: there is no general derivation of Ohm's law from first principles [at least that's what J.D. Jackson argues]). The conductivity is actually a tensor, which contains parts similar to your expression for epsilon. In and wave plasma theory, one ...


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Entropy and irreversibility are related to each other. Irreversibility is the one because of which process takes place and due to this energy degradation takes place that is exergy (availability) decreases. And basically irreversibility(I) is defined as I = To * ( del s ) That is when you multiply change in entropy of universe with the reference ...



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