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It's because the ion and electron densities are highest near the cathode (generating the glow) and flattening out away from the cathode. Reference from credible and official source


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It is the excited gas atoms which produce the glow by losing their excitation via the emission of photons. The reason there are more excited atoms near the cathode is twofold: The atoms are principally excited via collisions with fast-moving gas ions and to a lesser extend with other (neutral) gas atoms, NOT with electrons (see above comments re. ...


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One thing to consider is whether the wave, by being transverse, is linearly or elliptically polarized. If it starts out as a linearly polarized wave and converts to an elliptically polarized wave (which can happen), that is different than circular to elliptical. One also needs to consider whether the wave starts in the neutral atmosphere of Earth or in the ...


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Exactly the same happens as when light reflects off a metal surface. In both cases you have an electron gas that interacts with the light. In the case of a metal it's a dense (almost) free electron gas, and in the ionosphere you have a very dilute electron gas formed by ionisation of air molecules. The incoming electromagnetic wave causes the electrons to ...


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What book on Voyager were you referencing? In any case, they started developing the Voyager spacecraft in the 1960's. The first measurement that a solar wind even existed wasn't reported until 1960-1961 [K. Gringauz using the Lunik 2 spacecraft]. They were able to determine a flux of particles (i.e., number per area per time), but did not determine speed ...


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Plasma potential. Often electrons move faster than ions and leave the plasma at a higher rate. The plasma becomes positive until the positive 'plasmas potential' slows down the rate of electron loss from the plasma until it is the same as the rate of positive ion loss. The electrons are partially held in the plasma by the attractive positive plasma ...


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If the number of electrons and ions is exactly equal, it is still plasma. You are misunderstanding the quasineutrality requirement. The term "plasma" was coined by Irving Langmuir with the phrase "We shall use the name plasma to describe this region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons", Oscillations in Ionized Gases Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. ...


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Note that plasma oscillations in the long wavelength limit are due to the restoring force originated in the attraction between positive and negative charges. When only like charges exist, such oscillations tend to disappear. See the book by Ashcroft and Mermin.



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