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There are several reasons. One is that when a cloud of gas and dust collapse into a star forming region, it becomes unstable to gravitational fragmentation and usually forms filamentary structures. The gas that lies outside of the densest regions is often not dense enough to be itself then gravitationally unstable. This behaviour is clearly shown in modern ...

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In addition to answer of Autolatrty, you might want to take a look here at an experiment by Harry Swinney at U. Texas in Austin This experiment simulated the atmosphere of Jupiter and found that there was always one 'stable' vortex like Jupiter's red spot. If ever two were formed then they would quickly combine together to form one. This is a classic ...

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Circulation in the Jovian atmosphere is different from Earth because the interior of Jupiter is fluid and lacks any solid surface so convection may occur throughout the planet's outer "molecular envelope". The vortices on Jupiter are such that since they are so large (more than 95% of anticyclones have a diamieter of $> 2000$ km) they can last from 1-3 ...

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Possible but it would need an exceptional stable star and planetary system. As someone mentioned before, its so improbable, its practically impossible. If a system like this did exist, then it would almost certainly be made by some advanced ancient civilisation. It wouldn't take a massive amount to start introducing instabilities to the system as well, ...

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I think what you mean is - is it possible for a planetary system to exist such that the planets do not orbit in a single plane, but the planets have a large scatter of inclination angles? Our solar system has a relatively modest range, providing you ignore Pluto, of orbital inclination values (and eccentricities); zero to 7 degrees (Mercury). This is ...

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When considering the gravitational field at a point, you need to sum the effects of all mass based on the quantity, direction, and distance of those masses. In the general case, there may be no simplification for this summation. But there are several cases where simplifications are possible. In particular, spheres and shells with radial symmetry can have ...

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Recently, I have been thinking about alternative causes for the rotation of our planets. You're sixteen. I've noticed that while people of your age can understand Newton's first law of motion, they don't understand the rotational analog of this law. Just as an external force is needed to change an object's momentum, an external torque is needed to ...

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It is great that you "think differently" about problems - that is at the heart of all innovation. When it comes to the rotation of planets, you have to go back to the origins of the solar system: Planets are formed by accretion: a large cloud of debris starts to experience some gravitational pull, and as one "lump" becomes bigger than the others, it starts ...

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