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For gas giants the "surface" can be calculated where the pressure of the gases equals 1 earth atmosphere (1 atm), this is used to determine diameter of the planet. As to where the actual seed core of the planets are that originally formed them, not sure off the top of my head where that would be.


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Yes, take the orbits of Neptune and Pluto, for example, which are inclined to each other. Furthermore, it is possible for both satellites to influence each other's orbit and in doing so, to run along chaotic trajectories.


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For a planet which has a temperature gradient, hot in the center and cooler on the surface, why do we see absorption lines? The hot center sends photons within the black body spectrum with appropriate energies to excite surface cold atoms ,so the black body curve will have holes, where energy of the photons has been absorbed in exciting surface ...


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Well...there are several possible things which look a little strange with your question, but in general, emission occurs in hot regions and absorption occurs in cold. So, your "planet" could be emitting (presumably thermally, unless it's actually a star...) from the center and that blackbody spectrum is being absorbed by the cooler atmosphere. This is ...


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According to the shell theorem, there's no gravitational attraction inside a spherical shell of matter. At the center of the earth, its entire mass is arranged around you in spherical shells, so the gravitational acceleration due to the earth is zero. You'd still feel the gravity of the sun and moon and other external objects, as well as a (small) ...


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I'm not a physics expert, but I do know the basics. Gravity is created by mass so all things with mass have gravity. The gravity is negligible in an object unless it is something large like the earth or moon. In the middle of earth, all of the mass should be all around you so you should feel the force of gravity pulling in all directions away from you.



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