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Over long periods gravitational interactions between planets can have a very large effect on their orbits - especially if the planet you are interacting with is Jupiter. Orbits can become "adjusted" into periods which are in resonance with Jupiter's period. It is also possible for a planet to be moved to a completely different part of the Solar System by ...


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You've asked a very entertaining question, and the answer is not simple. Let's ignore collisions for the moment. The "purest" effect, that is, the one which involves no change on the part of the planet or its sun, is the effect of tidal bulges in the sun. Just as the earth, for instance, is not a perfect sphere due to tidal forces, so the sun is not a ...


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Sun is greater 330,000 / 93 mil squared / 1(earth mass) x 250,000 mil sqared = ratio of g sun to g earth towards the moon at new moon. = 2.38 The ratio of sun to earth gravity is 2.38 , so the sun is more influential. However the moon is at a velocity that precludes it from fallimg into the sun. Just as the earth has has a velocity that allows it to ...


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A recent paper suggests a mechanism to create totally metal stars. Some Stars are Totally Metal: A New Mechanism Driving Dust Across Star-Forming Clouds, and Consequences for Planets, Stars, and Galaxies http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.5509 Ordinary star formation produces planetary mass objects (sub-brown dwarfs), so perhaps this new mechanism would also do so. ...


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For gas giants the "surface" can be calculated where the pressure of the gases equals 1 earth atmosphere (1 atm), this is used to determine diameter of the planet. As to where the actual seed core of the planets are that originally formed them, not sure off the top of my head where that would be.



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