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It's all about the electronic structure. "Electronic structure" is the term for the available energy states and transitions of electrons in the crystal. Largely, the nuclei in a crystal are much of a muchness; big positive things that don't move a lot. The electrons, however, can move around to different degrees depending on how many of them there are, the ...

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Taste: There are 5 basic tastes that the human tongue can detect. They are sweet, savory, salty, sour and bitter. These are detected by taste receptor cells on our tongue, I won't go deep into the biology part. The basic tastes of sweet, salty and sour have different thresholds, or concentration levels, at which they can be detected. In other words, it is ...

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Taste and smell are mediated by receptors in your body that molecules can attach to. These receptors then give off an electrical signal which is translated in the brain to a certain taste or smell. The details of this are biological and not of importance here. So no, there is no relevant frequency or even wave-like behavior. Touch is a very different thing. ...

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I don't just mean reactions that require heat to proceed, storing surplus energy in chemical bonds. I wonder about strongly endothermic reactions that suck heat out of environment A reaction that requires heat to proceed, a reaction that sucks heat out of the environment, and an endothermic reaction are all the same. These are all just descriptions of ...

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I have no background in this matter, but I think some basic intuition is in order. Sliding down: Suppose you have chain of rubber balls connected by elastic springs. Hold up the chain and let it dangle. Notice that the energy of the system is exactly as above, with $E(R_n)=mgZ_n$ where $Z_n$ is the height of ball $n$. What will it look like? Numbering ...

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Assuming I understand your question correctly, one example is femtosecond laser spectroscopy. A typical application would be to use a light pulse to start a photoreaction then send a second pulse after some time $t$ to measure the optical absoption by the reacting materials. By varying the time delay of the second pulse you can measure the concentrations of ...

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The older method would be using scattering. If you shoot an electron at an atom, it will get scattered by the electrons. The exact shape of the repelling potential (that depends on the density distribution), conditions the outgoing angles. This is, in principle, valid for polyelectronic atoms, but deconvolving the output to infer a potential is a quite ...

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Old ways used Schrodinger's equation's solutions for the atoms and mapped the square of the wave function.. Since the solution fitted the spectrum of the atom it was accepted that the orbital was also correct. Recently there has been an experiment that measured the orbitals of the hydrogen atom The abstract from the link: To describe the microscopic ...

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