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1

Boron can conceivably fit a maximum of 8 electrons in its outer shell. This could be achieved through boron covalently bonding with a non-metal (as boron is a metalloid). It is in the 2nd period (row) of the periodic table, hence has 2 'shells', following the 2n2 pattern for maximum amount of outer shell electrons (where 'n' is the amount of 'shells' the ...


3

No! In chemistry this is called "Radical Ions". some of the radicals can exist, but it is very hard to find them in the nature because they interact very fast. So the question is how can you understand that a radical exist or not? well you have to know "Physical Chemistry". the Radical that You mentioned can not exist, because of high density of charge ...


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As John Rennie answered it very clearly, I would like to add some more details too. See, around early 1900 the idea of atoms was floating around the scientists' heads. At first everything was theory, but these things happened: You certainly heard of Joseph Thomson's cathode rays. Well, he actually calculated the ratio Q/m of atoms. (You can search any of ...


5

There is no such experiment, though there are lots of experiments where the number of electrons in an atom are measured as a side effect. We know atoms are electrically neutral so there must be equal numbers of electrons and protons. We know successive elements in the periodic table are built up by incrementing the number of protons, so we know how many ...


0

A chemical reaction that releases energy is called an exothermic reaction and a chemical reaction that absorbs energy is called an endothermic reaction. Energy from an exothermic reaction is negative, thus energy is given a negative sign; whereas, energy from an endothermic reaction is positive and energy is given a positive sign. An example that ...


3

A brief history of what science thought about the sun can be found here . It is reasonable that once thermodynamics advanced to the point of measuring and calculating energies the discrepancy between heat output of the sun and the age of the earth had to be explained. They tried with gravitation, but until the discovery of nuclear energy and E=m*c^2 it ...


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Magnesium is flammable due to the fact is has hydrogen. When the hydrogen and water combine including the magnesium that is not a good combination and the water spreads causing more issues than there already is.



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