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I propose this : As long as the detailed balance is respected, the system can be studied with equilibrium thermodynamic. Therefore we can write the free energy of the solution, for exemple $ F=A \log(A) + B \log(B) + S \log(S) + \chi_{A S} A S + \chi_{B S} B S + \chi_{A B} A B $ ($S$ the solvent, $\chi$ the interaction parameters), plug the equilibrium ...


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ice is less denser than water because in ice the molecules arrange themselves in a rigid tetrahedral structure due to which cage like spaces remain in their bonding. But water molecules remain in linear bonding form. As the volume of ice becomes greater, it is less denser.


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$T$ should be the actual temperature at which the water evaporates. That is, the temperature at the interface between the air and the water, not the boiling point. This is simply because $dU = TdS + pdV - \sum_i \mu_i dN$ (where $T$ is most definitely the temperature of the system), or by rearranging, $$ dS = \frac{1}{T}dU -\frac{p}{T}dV + ...


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Specific entropies ($\mathrm{kJ\,kg^{-1}\,K^{-1}}$): \begin{array}{lrll} & \mathrm{^\circ C} & \text{liquid} & \text{vapor} \\ \text{Triple point} & 0.01 & 0 & 9.155 \\ \text{Normal boiling point} & 100. & 1.307 & 7.355 \\ \text{Critical point} & 374.15 & 4.430 & 4.430 \\ \end{array}


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As an another attempt, I calculated the coefficients of the cubic regressions that describe the NIST data. I first calculated the cubic regression coefficients as a function of pressure for viscosity as a function of temperature. In other words, I calculated the coefficients for each isobar. In equation form that is, $$\mu ...


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The most likely compound would be the Helium Hydride ion


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Another way to look at spin, complementary to the other ways, which I find helpful is look at an abstract generalisation of the concept of angular momentum and forget about things like classical tops. This generalisation begins in something called Noether's Theorem which you probably haven't met yet. You need some background but the idea is essentially ...


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Quantum Spin of a particle just represents another degree of freedom (e.g $+/- 1/2$ for electrons) and due to its representation as an "angular momentum operator", it is refered to as "spin". However it is not an analog (or actual revolution of a particle around its own axis). At least not in a classical sense. In summary it represents another degree of ...


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Electrons never follow "particle principles", by which you seem to mean the physics of classical point particles. It's only in certain cases that a classical approximation is sufficient for human purposes, i.e. when we don't care about the uncertainty relations that govern quantum mechanical objects. In general it's better to think about elementary ...


4

Spin is not defined as the spin of electron around its own axis. Spin is the intrinsic angular momentum of the electron - intrinsic meaning it does not arise from the electron's motion, but is a property of electron itself. The electron in the atom "can" be described as a particle if you are using the Bohr model of the atom. Quantum mechanical picture of ...


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To start, $h$,$\rho$ and $c_p$ are standard symbols for heat transfer coefficient (energy per unit area per unit temperature), density(mass per unit volume), and heat capacity at constant pressure (energy per unit mass per unit temperature). If you put all these together you get that something in units of volume per unit time equals divided by $F_0$ is ...


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Spark plugs are an open circuit. But there is an exceptional amount of voltage causing a spark to jump the gap, same as lighting.


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Steam is caused when water vapor condenses. This is caused by the air having too much water vapor for it to hold. When you have a lot of heat under the pan, the air above the pan is quite hot and can hold a lot of water. The water evaporating from the pan disperses into the atmosphere and doesn't condense. When you turn off the heat, the pan and food ...



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