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The quantity minimized during the geometry optimization is the total energy $U$ of the molecular system with nuclei being fixed. It consists of the kinetic energy of electrons, the potential energy of the Coulomb repulsions between the electrons, the potential energy of the Coulomb attractions between electrons and nuclei, and the potential energy of the ...

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Energy wise everything works out fine if you choose to identify energy with mass. What is confusing is the identity of the particles. Mass is an identity, and if you change that you changed the identity. So start with an electron and a proton, combine them and yes you get a smaller mass but what is the identity of the new creature. It cannot be an electron ...

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This scheme would be terribly inefficient thermodynamically. Firstly, where is the energy needed to generate the electrical pulses coming from? Secondly, neither the process of electrolysis of seawater or the combustion of the resulting hydrogen and oxygen is 100% efficient. Finally can this system really generate enough thrust to propel a boat? If the ...

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The energy required to split the water into oxygen and hydrogen is quite a bit less than the energy you would get back when you burn it (commercial electrolysis units run at about 70% efficiency). I think that makes this an inefficient method of propulsion. If you just (electrically) heated an amount of water until it became steam you would reach the same ...

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